Biology Bulletin Reviews

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 210–221 | Cite as

Uric acid and central nervous system functioning (a literature review)

  • O. V. Tovchiga
  • S. Yu. Shtrygol’


The high level of uric acid in blood distinguishes humans from other studied species of mammals. The reason behind this is the absence of the enzyme uricase, which is evolutionary determined. Today, hyperuricemia can be considered as a factor of “diseases of civilization.” However, uric acid can also have positive effects, because it intensifies cognitive processes. The high level of uric acid in blood probably facilitated the emergence of intellectually advanced primates. Later, it enhanced the human’s motivation for active work. In the present review, these points are substantiated using data by V.P. Efroimson on the role of hyperuricemia and gout in the development of genius, V.S. Rotenberg’s Search Activity Concept, and the R. Johnson’s hypothesis on the role of uric acid as a messenger when it is necessary to change the behavioral responses of animals upon transition to active feeding. The nonspecific activating role of hyperuricemia is the factor that links all three hypotheses together. In addition, the enhancement of cognitive functions and motivations in hyperuricemia has been confirmed in different population samples. The biochemical basis for such effects is the potential for uric acid synthesis in the central nervous system and the penetration of the blood-brain barrier by its precursors, the interrelations between the metabolism of uric acid in the central nervous system and the metabolism of catecholamines and dopamine, and the neuroprotective and antioxidative properties of uric acid.


Uric Acid Gout Xanthine Oxidase Allopurinol Serum Uric Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acheson, R.M., Social class gradients and serum uric acid in males and females, Br. Med. J., 1969, vol. 4, pp. 65–67.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson, R.M., Epidemiology of serum uric acid and gout: an example of the complexities of multifactorial causation, Proc. R. Soc. Med., 1970, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 193–197.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, R.F., Cereser, V.H., Faraco, R.B., et al., Systemic administration of GMP induces anxiolyticlike behavior in rats, Biochem. Behav., 2010, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 306–311.Google Scholar
  4. Amaro, S., Planas, A.M., and Chamorro, A., Uric acid administration in patients with acute stroke: a novel approach to neuroprotection, Expert Rev. Neurother., 2008, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 259–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ames, B.N., Cathcart, R., Schwiers, E., and Hochstein, P., Uric acid provides an antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant- and radical-caused aging and cancer: a hypothesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1981, vol. 78, pp. 6858–6862.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amorini, A.M., Petzold, A., Tavazzi, B., et al., Increase of uric acid and purine compounds in biological fluids of multiple sclerosis patients, Clin. Biochem., 2009, vol. 42, nos. 10–11, pp. 1001–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Antoniou, K., Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z., Hyphantis, T., et al., A detailed behavioral analysis of the acute motor effects of caffeine in the rat: involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, Psychopharmacology, 2005, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 154–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anumonye, A., Dobson, J.W., Oppenheim, S., and Sutherland, J.S., Plasma uric acid concentrations among Edinburgh business executives, JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1969, vol. 208, pp. 1141–1144.Google Scholar
  9. Becker, B.F., Towards the physiological function of uric acid, Free Rad. Biol. Med., 1993, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 615–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker, B.F., Kastenbauer, S., and Ködel, U., Urate oxidation in CSF and blood of patients with inflammatory disorders of the nervous system, Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids, 2004, vol. 23, nos. 8–9, pp. 1201–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Betz, A.L., Identification of hypoxanthine transport and xanthine oxidase activity in brain capillaries, J. Neurochem., 1985, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 574–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloch, S. and Brackenridge, C.J., Psychological, performance and biochemical factors in medical students under examination stress, J. Psychosom. Res., 1972, vol. 16, pp. 25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolgova, I.V., Rovda, U.I., Minjaylova, N.N., et al., The results of analysis of medical-social anamnesis of children and youths with hyperuricemia, Mat’ Dita Kuzb., 2009, vol. 2, no. 37, pp. 37–40.Google Scholar
  14. Bowman, G.L., Shannon, J., Freic, B., et al., Uric acid as a CNS antioxidant, Alzheimers Dis., 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1331–1336.Google Scholar
  15. Brooks, S.C., Linn J.J., and Disney, N., Serotonin, folic acid, and uric acid metabolism in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, Biol. Psychiatry, 1978, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 671–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks, G.W. and Mueller, E., Serum urate concentrations among university professors; relation to drive, achievement, leadership, JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1966, vol. 195, pp. 415–418.Google Scholar
  17. Brouns, R., Wauters, A., van de Vijver, G., et al., Decrease in uric acid in acute ischemic stroke correlates with stroke severity, evolution and outcome, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 2010, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 383–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Burnstock, G., Physiology and pathophysiology of purinergic neurotransmission, Physiol. Rev., 2007, vol. 87, pp. 659–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burroni, M., Cenci, L., Cervini, C., et al., L’uricemia nell’eta pediatrica (sue interrelazioni con lo sviluppo mentale), Clin. Dietol., 1981, vol. 8, pp. 17–39.Google Scholar
  20. Chen, T., Wang, M., Liang, Y., et al., A nucleoside-nucleotide mixture may reduce memory deterioration in old senescence-accelerated mice, J. Nutr., 2000, vol. 130, pp. 3085–3089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Church, W.H. and Rappolt, G., Nigrostriatal catecholamine metabolism in guinea pigs is altered by purine enzyme inhibition, Exp. Brain Res., 1999, vol. 127, pp. 147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Church, W.H. and Ward, V.L., Uric acid is reduced in the substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease: effect on dopamine oxidation, Brain Res. Bull., 1994, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 419–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clark, D.A., Arnold, E.L., Foulds, E.L., et al., Serum urate and cholesterol levels in Air Force Academy cadets, Aviat. Space Env. Med., 1975, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1044–1048.Google Scholar
  24. Collazos, J., Blanco, M.S., Guerra, E., et al., Sequential evaluation of serum urate concentrations in AIDS patients with infections of the central nervous system, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 2000, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1293–1296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Crawley, J.N., Marangos, P.J., Paul, S.M., et al., Interaction between purine and benzodiazepine: inosine reverses diazepam-induced stimulation of mouse exploratory behavior, Science, 1981, vol. 211, no. 4483, pp. 725–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dujmovic, I., Pekmezovic, T., Obrenovic, R., et al., Cerebrospinal fluid and serum uric acid levels in patients with multiple sclerosis, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 2009, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 848–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunn, J.P., Brooks, G.W., Mausner, J., et al., Social class gradient of serum uric acid levels in males, JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1963, vol. 185, pp. 431–436.Google Scholar
  28. Dzhergeniia, S.L. and Ushakov, I.B., Results of experimental study of psychophysiological state and hematological characteristics in servicemen presenting with hyperuricemia, Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk, 2010, no. 12, pp. 33–37.Google Scholar
  29. Efroimson, V.P., Genetika genial’nosti (Genetics of Genius), Moscow: Taideks Ko., 2002.Google Scholar
  30. Enrico, P., Mura, M.A., Esposito, G., et al., Effect of naloxone on morphine-induced changes in striatal dopamine metabolism and glutamate, ascorbic acid and uric acid release in freely moving rats, Brain Res., 1998, vol. 497, no. 1, pp. 94–102.Google Scholar
  31. Essman, W.B., Purine metabolism in memory consolidations, in Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York: Academic, 1967, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  32. Euser, S.M., Hofman, A., Westendorp, R.G., and Breteler, M.M., Serum uric acid and cognitive function and dementia, Brain, 2009, vol. 132, pp. 377–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fowler, M.G., Relationship of serum uric acid to achievement motivation, Psychosom. Med., 1973, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gao, X., Curhan, G., Forman, J.P., et al., Vitamin C intake and serum uric acid concentration in men, J. Rheumatol., 2008, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1853–1858.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. George, J. and Struthers, A.D., Role of urate, xanthine oxidase and the effects of allopurinol in vascular oxidative stress, Vasc. Health Risk Manage., 2009, vol. 5, pp. 265–272.Google Scholar
  36. Golubovskii, M., Genius and genetics (V.P. Efroimson), 1999. Google Scholar
  37. Gulbrandsen, C.L., Morton, N.E., Rao, D.C., et al., Determinants of plasma uric acid, Hum. Genet., 1979, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 307–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hartung, D., Stadeler, M., Grieshaber, R., et al., Work and diet-related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases: comparison of two occupational groups, J. Occup. Med. Tox., 2010, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  39. Hayden, M.R. and Tyagi, S.C., Uric acid: a new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the urate redox shuttle, Nutr. Metab., 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  40. Hooper, D.C., Scott, G.S., Zborek, A., et al., Uric acid, a peroxynitrite scavenger, inhibits CNS inflammation, blood-CNS barrier permeability changes, and tissue damage in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, FASEB J., 2000, vol. 14, pp. 691–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hunter, R.E., Barrera, C.M., Dohanich, G.P., and Dunlap, W.P., Effects of uric acid and caffeine on A1 adenosine receptor binding in developing rat brain, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 1990, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 791–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Il’ina, A.E., Barskova, V.G., and Nasonov, E.L., Latent hyperuricemia-is benefit or harm? Russ. Med. Zh., 2008, vol. 16, no. 24, pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  43. Inouye, E., Park, K.S., and Asaka, A., Blood uric acid level and IQ: a study in twin families, Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol., 1984, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 237–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenni, L., Jenni-Eiermann, S., Spina, F., and Schwabl, H., Regulation of protein breakdown and adrenocortical response to stress in birds during migratory flight, Am. J. Physiol., 2000, vol. 278, pp. R1182–R1189.Google Scholar
  45. Johnson, R.J., Andrews, P., Benner, S.A., et al., The evolution of obesity: insights from the mid-Miocene, Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc., 2010, vol. 121, pp. 295–307.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnson, R.J., Gaucher, E.A., Sautin, Y.Y., et al., The planetary biology of ascorbate and uric acid and their relationship with the epidemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease, Med. Hypotheses, 2008, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 22–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, R.J., Sautin, Y.Y., Oliver, W.J., et al., Lessons from comparative physiology: could uric acid represent a physiologic alarm signal gone awry in western society?, J. Comp. Physiol., B, 2009, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 67–76.Google Scholar
  48. Joseph, M.H. and Hodges, H., Lever pressing for food reward and changes in dopamine turnover and uric acid in rat caudate and nucleus accumbens studied chronically by in vivo voltammetry, J. Neurosci. Meth., 1990, vol. 34, nos. 1–3, pp. 143–149.Google Scholar
  49. Kasl, S.V., Brooks, G.W., and Cobb, S., Serum urate concentrations in male high-school students, JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1966, vol. 198, no. 7, pp. 713–716.Google Scholar
  50. Kasl, S.V., Brooks, G.W., and Rodgers, W.L., Serum uric acid and cholesterol in achievement behavior and motivation, JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1970, vol. 213, pp. 1158–1164, 1291–1299.Google Scholar
  51. Kastenbauera, S., Koedela, U., Beckerb, B.F., and Pfistera, H.W., Experimental meningitis in the rat: protection by uric acid at human physiological blood concentrations, Eur. J. Pharm., 2001, vol. 425, no. 2, pp. 149–152.Google Scholar
  52. Katz, J.L. and Weiner, H., Psychosomatic considerations in hyperuricemia and gout, Psychosom. Med., 1972, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 165–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kennett, K.F. and Cropley, A.J., Uric acid and divergent thinking: a possible relationship, Br. J. Psychol., 1975, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim, P., Yaksh, T.L., Burnett, P.C., et al., Cerebrospinal fluid levels of uric acid in dogs and the effect of allopurinol, Brain Res., 1987, vol. 402, no. 1, pp. 87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kutzing, M.K. and Firestein, B.L., Altered uric acid levels and disease states, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2008, vol. 324, no. 1, pp. 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. López-Jiménez, M., García Puig, J., and Mateos, A.F., Purine transport through the blood-brain barrier in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Med. Clin., 1989, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 167–170.Google Scholar
  57. Lorenzia, T.M., Borbaa, D.L., Dutraa, G., et al., Association of serum uric acid levels with emotional and affective temperaments, J. Aff. Dis., 2010, vol. 121, nos. 1–2, pp. 161–164.Google Scholar
  58. Machado-Vieira, R., Salvadore, G., Diaz-Granados, N., et al., New therapeutic targets for mood disorders, Sci. World J., 2011, vol. 10, pp. 713–726.Google Scholar
  59. Mattle, H.P., Lienert, C., and Greeve, I., Uric acid and multiple sclerosis, Ther Umsch., 2004, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 553–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mertz, D.P., Gout hazard as the price for development of intelligence? Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 1974, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 24–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Montoye, H.J., Faulkner, J.A., Dodge, H.J., et al., Serum uric acid concentration among business executives, Ann. Int. Med., 1967, vol. 66, pp. 838–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mueller, K., Voltammetric evidence in vivo of cholinergic modulation of extracellular ascorbic and uric acid in rat striatum, Brain Res., 1987, vol. 408, no. 1, pp. 313–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mueller, K., The effects of haloperidol and amphetamine on ascorbic acid and uric acid in caudate and nucleus accumbens of rats as measured by voltammetry in vivo, Life Sci., 1990, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 735–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mueller, K., Palmour, R., and Andrews, C.D., In vivo voltammetric evidence of production of uric acid by rat caudate, Brain Res., 1985, vol. 335, no. 2, pp. 231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A., and Rodwell, V.W., Harper’s Biochemistry, Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1990, vol. 2, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  66. Neill, O.R., Uric acid levels and dopamine transmission in rat striatum diurnal changes and effects of drug, Brain Res., 1990, vol. 507, no. 2, pp. 267–272.Google Scholar
  67. Nomikos, G.G., Zis, A.P., Damsma, G., and Fibiger, H.C., Electroconvulsive shock increases interstitial concentrations of uric acid in the rat brain, Brain Res., 1994, vol. 660, no. 1, pp. 50–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Okamoto, I., Kayano, T., Hanaya, T., et al., Up-regulation of an extracellular superoxide dismutase-like activity in hibernating hamsters subjected to oxidative stress in mid- to late arousal from torpor, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 2006, vol. 144, pp. 47–56.Google Scholar
  69. Ooki, S., Yamada, K., and Asaka, A., Relationship between blood uric acid level and personality traits, Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol., 1990, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 117–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Orowan, E., The origin of man, Nature, 1955, vol. 175, pp. 683–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Parmar, N., Uric acid and cardiovascular risk, N. Engl. J. Med., 2009, vol. 360, p. 5.Google Scholar
  72. Popert, A.J. and Hewitt, J.V., Gout and hyperuricaemia in rural and urban populations, Ann. Rheum. Dis., 1962, vol. 21, pp. 154–163.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Puschel, G.P., Nath, A., and Jungermann, K., Increase of urate formation by stimulation of sympathetic hepatic nerves, circulating noradrenaline and glucagon in the perfused rat liver, FEBS Lett., 1987, vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 145–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rahe, R.H., Rubin, R.T., and Arthur, R.J., The three investigators study. Serum uric acid, cholesterol, and cortisol variability during stresses of everyday life, Psychosom. Med., 1974, vol. 36, pp. 258–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rathbone, M.P., Middlemiss, P.J., Gysbers, J.W., et al., Trophic effects of purines in neurons and glial cells, Progr. Neurobiol., 1999, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 663–690.Google Scholar
  76. Redzic, Z.B., Gasic, J.M., and Segal, M.B., The kinetics of hypoxanthine transport across perfused choroid plexus of the sheep, Brain Res., 2002, vol. 925, no. 2, pp. 169–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Reiber, H., Ruff, M., and Uhr, M., Ascorbate concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Intrathecal accumulation and CSF flow rate, Clin. Chim. Acta, 1993, vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 163–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Reyes, A.J., The increase in serum uric acid concentration caused by diuretics might be beneficial in heart failure, Eur. J. Heart Fail., 2005, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 461–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Robin, J.P., Boucontet, L., Chillet, P., and Groscolas, R., Behavioral changes in fasting emperor penguins: evidence for a “refeeding signal” linked to a metabolic shift, Am. J. Physiol., 1998, vol. 274, pp. R746–R753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rotenberg, V.S., Snovedeniya, gipnoz i deyatel’nost’ mozga (Dreams, Hypnosis, and Brain Activity), Moscow: Tsentr Gumanitarn. Liter. RON, 2001.Google Scholar
  81. Rovda, Yu.I., Igisheva, L.N., and Kazakova, L.M., Influence of serums with different uric acid concentration in youths with hyperuricemia on electric characteristics of mollusk, Pediatriya, 1993, no. 6, pp. 40–44.Google Scholar
  82. Rovda, Yu.I. and Kazakova, L.M., Purinosis (gouty diathesis) and some diseases of children and adults (urate nephropathy, gout, arterial hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome, pancreatic diabetes), Mat’ Dita Kuzb., 2003, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 18–22.Google Scholar
  83. Sakamoto, K., Takao, F., and Yoshimoto, S., An epidemiologic study on the correlation between salt threshold, academic test marks, biochemical data, number of complaints, and personality in women college students, Am. J. Prev. Med., 1986, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 351–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Schmidt, A.P., Böhmer, A.E., Antunes, C., et al., Antinociceptive properties of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol in mice: role of A1 adenosine receptors, Br. J. Pharmacol., 2009, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 163–172.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Scott, G.S., Spitsin, S.V., Kean, R.B., et al., Therapeutic intervention in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by administration of uric acid precursors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2002, vol. 99, no. 25, pp. 16303–16308.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sevanian, A., Davies, K.J., and Hochstein, P., Serum urate as an antioxidant for ascorbic acid, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1991, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1129S–1134S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Skolnick, P., Paul, S.M., and Marangos, P.J., Purines as endogenous ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor, Fed. Proc., 1980, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 3050–3055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sofaer, J. and Emery, A., Genes for super-intelligence?, J. Med. Genet., 1981, vol. 18, pp. 410–413.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Stetten D., Jr., and Hearon, J.Z., Intellectual level measured by army classification battery and serum uric acid concentration, Science, 1959, vol. 3365, no. 129, p. 1737.Google Scholar
  90. Stevens, H.A., Cropley, A.J., and Blattler, D.P., Intellect and serum uric acid: an optimal concentration of serum urate for human learning? Soc. Biol., 1975, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Tan, S., Radi, R., Gaudier, F., et al., Physiologic levels of uric acid inhibit xanthine oxidase in human plasma, Pediatr. Res., 1993, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 303–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Titov, V.N., Dmitriev, V.A., Gushchina, O.V., et al., Physicochemical activity of uric acid. Hyperuricemia as an impaired biological function of endoecology and adaptation, biological reactions of excretion, inflammation, and hydrodynamic arterial pressure, Usp. Sovrem. Biol., 2011, no. 5, pp. 483–502.Google Scholar
  93. Toshihiko, A., Masahico, Y., and Takeo, I., Postmorterm changes of uric acid in various rat tissues: determination of uric acid by reversed phase HPLC with electrochemical detection, Anal. Biochem., 1984, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 113–118.Google Scholar
  94. Ueda, T., Kinoshita, K., Wakisaka, S., and Adachi, H., Clinical value of the sequential study of the uric acid level in the CSF in patients with postoperative meningitis, No Shinkei Geka, 1985, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 719–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Vasdev, S., Gill, V., Parai, S., et al., Dietary vitamins E and C supplementation prevents fructose induced hypertension, Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2002, vol. 241, pp. 107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Villegas, R., Xiang, Y., Cai, Q., et al., Prevalence and determinants of hyperuricemia in middle-aged, urban chinese men, Met. Syn. Rel. Dis., 2010, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 263–270.Google Scholar
  97. Wagner, J.A. and Katz, R.J., Purinergic control of anxiety: direct behavioral evidence in the rat, Neurosci. Lett., 1983, vol. 43, nos. 2–3, pp. 333–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wallage, S.L., Chase, P.H., and Ellman, A., Birth order in gout, Arthr. Rheumatol., 1967, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 368.Google Scholar
  99. Waring, W.S., McKnight, J.A., Webb, D.J., and Maxwell, S.R., Uric acid restores endothelial function in patients with type 1 diabetes and regular smokers, Diabetes, 2006, vol. 55, pp. 3127–3132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Watanabe, S., Kang, D.H., Feng, L., et al., Uric acid, hominoid evolution, and the pathogenesis of saltsensitivity, Hypertension, 2002, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Yanai, H. and Morimoto, M., Effect of ascorbate on serum lipids and urate metabolism during exhaustive training, Clin. Sci., 2004, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 107–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yiginer, O., Ozcelik, F., Inanc, T., et al., Allopurinol improves endothelial function and reduces oxidant-inflammatory enzyme of myeloperoxidase in metabolic syndrome, Clin. Res. Cardiol., 2008, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 334–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyNational University of PharmacyKharkivUkraine

Personalised recommendations