Biology Bulletin Reviews

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 157–180 | Cite as

Beavers (Castor fiber and Castor canadensis), the founders of habitats and phytophages

Article

Abstract

A review of the literature on the influence of beavers on the environment has been presented with regard to following aspects: (1) specific features of the ecology of beavers crucial for understanding their effects on the environment: (2) changes in the physical characteristics of habitats due to the activity of beavers (beavers as engineers); (3) the role of the beaver as a phytophage; (4) long-term changes of vegetation in beavers’ habitats and the possible consequences of these changes for beavers.

Keywords

beavers influence on the environment keystone species ecosystem engineers habitats phytophagy review 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aleinikov, A.A., Current conditions of European beaver and its environmental activity in Bryanski Les Nature Reserve and its protected zone, Mater. IV Mezhd. simp. “Dinamika populyatsii okhotnich’ikh zhivotnykh Severnoi Evropy,” 18–22 sentyabrya 2006 g., Petrozavodsk, Respublika Kareliya, Rossiya (Proc. IV Int. Symp. “Dynamics of Hunting Animals Populations in Northern Europe,” September 18–22, 2006, Petrozavodsk, Karelia Republic, Russia), Petrozavodsk, 2007, pp. 16–24.Google Scholar
  2. Aleksiuk, M., Scent-mound communication, territoriality, and population regulation in beaver (Castor canadensis), J. Mammal., 1968, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 759–762.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, C.B., Pastur, G.M., Lencinas, M.V., et al., Does introduced North American beaver Castor canadensis engineer differently in southern South America?, An overview with implications for restoration, Mammal. Rev., 2009, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 33–52.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, B.W. and Hill, E.P., Beaver (Castor canadensis), in Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation, Feldhamer, G.A., Thompson, B.C., and Chapman, J.A., Eds., Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins Univ. Press, 2003, pp. 288–310.Google Scholar
  5. Balodis, M.M., Bobr. Biologiya i mesto v prirodno-khozyaistvennom komplekse respubliki (The Beaver: Biology and Position in Natural-Economic Complex of the Republic), Riga: Zinatne, 1990.Google Scholar
  6. Barabash-Nikiforov, I.I., Bobr i vykhukhol’ kak komponenty vodno-beregovogo kompleksa (Beaver and Desman as the Elements of Water-Riparian Complex), Voronezh, 1950.Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, D.M. and Mallik, A.U., Effect of beaver, Castor canadensis, herbivore on streamside vegetation in Northern Ontario watershed, Can. Field-Nat., 2001, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 9–21.Google Scholar
  8. Barnes, D.M. and Mallik, A.U., Habitat factors influencing beaver dam establishment in a Northern Ontario watershed, J. Wildl. Manage, 1997, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1371–1377.Google Scholar
  9. Barnes, W.J. and Dibble, E., The effects of beaver in riverbank forest succession, Can. J. Bot., 1988, vol. 66, pp. 40–44.Google Scholar
  10. Baskin, L.M. and Novoselova, N.S., A fear of predators as a factor determining the length of feeding routes in beaver, Zool. Zh., 2008, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 226–230.Google Scholar
  11. Beier, P. and Barrett, R., Beaver habitat use and impact in Truckee River basin, California, J. Wildl. Manage, 1987, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 794–799.Google Scholar
  12. Belovsky, G., Summer diet optimization by beaver, Am. Mid. Nat., 1984, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 209–222.Google Scholar
  13. Bergerud, A.T. and Miller, D.R., Population dynamics of Newfoundland beaver, Can. J. Zool., 1977, vol. 55, pp. 1480–1492.Google Scholar
  14. Bobretsov, A.V., Neifel’d, N.D., Sokol’skii, S.M., et al., Mlekopitayushchie Pechoro-Ilychskogo zapovednika (Mammals of Pechoro-Ilychskii Nature Reserve), Syktyvkar: Komi Knizh. Izd., 2004.Google Scholar
  15. Bondarev, L.G., Accumulation of wood alluvium and a man, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser.: Geogr., 1985, no. 4, pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  16. Borisov, B.P., Metodicheskie ukazaniya po uchetu rechnogo bobra na bol’shikh territoriyakh (Methodological Recommendations Beaver Census on Extended Territories), Moscow: Glavokhoty RSFSR, 1986.Google Scholar
  17. Borisov, B.P., The beaver, in Sostoyanie okhotnich’ikh resursov v Rossiiskoi Federatsii v 2008–2010 gg. (Conditions of Hunting Resources in Russian Federation in 2008–2010), 2011, no. 9, pp. 86–90. http://www.mnr.gov.ru/regulatory/detail.php?ID=126618 Google Scholar
  18. Borodina, M.N., The methods of economical use of the river beaver related with ecological peculiarities, Tr. Okskogo Gos. Zapov., 1960, no. 3, pp. 41–76.Google Scholar
  19. Borodina, M.N., The results and prospects of settlements of river beaver in the Oka River basin, in Sb. materialov po rezul’tatam izucheniya mlekopitayushchikh v gosudarstvennykh zapovednikakh (The Materials on the Results of Study of Mammals in State Nature Reserves), Moscow: Min-vo S. Kh. SSSR, 1956, pp. 95–136.Google Scholar
  20. Broschart, M.R., Johnston, C.A., and Naiman, R.J., Predicting beaver colony density in boreal landscapes, J. Wildl. Manage, 1989, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 929–934.Google Scholar
  21. Busher, P., Long-term demographic patterns of unexploited beaver populations in the United States, Proc. First Euro-American Beaver Congress, Busher, P. and Gorshkov, Y., Eds., Kazan: Volga-Kama Nat. Nature Reserve, 2001, pp. 39–50.Google Scholar
  22. Busher, P.E., Warber, R.J., and Jenkins, S.H., Population density, colony composition, and local movement in two Sierra Nevadan beaver populations, J. Mammal., 1983, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 314–318.Google Scholar
  23. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., Sedimentation rates and patterns in beaver ponds in a mountain environment, Geomorphology, 1995, vol. 13, pp. 255–269.Google Scholar
  24. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., The geomorphic influence of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams, Geomorphology, 2005, vol. 71, pp. 48–60.Google Scholar
  25. Correll, D.L., Jordan, T.E., and Weller, D.E., Beaver pond biogeochemical effects of the Maryland Coastal Plain, Biogeochemistry, 2000, vol. 49, pp. 217–239.Google Scholar
  26. Crain, C.M. and Bertness, M.D., Ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients: implications for conservation and management, BioScience, 2006, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 211–218.Google Scholar
  27. Cunningham, J.M., Calhoun, A.J.K., and Glanz, W.E., Patterns of beaver colonization and wetland change in Acadia National Park, Northeast. Nat., 2006, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 583–596.Google Scholar
  28. Czech, A. and Schwab, G., Introduction, Proc. 2nd European Beaver Symp. “The beaver in a new millennium,” September 27–30, 2000, Bialowieza, Poland: Carpathian Heritage Soc., 2001, pp. 5–6.Google Scholar
  29. Danilov, P.I., Conditions of reserves of Canadian beaver in Karelia and prospective development, Tr. Voronezh. Gos. Zapov., 1975, vol. 1, no. 21, pp. 105–113.Google Scholar
  30. Danilov, P.I., Kan’shiev, V.Ya., and Fedorov, F.V., Rechnye bobry Evropeiskogo severa Rossii (River Beavers in European North of Russia), Moscow: Nauka, 2007.Google Scholar
  31. Dezhkin, V.V., D’yakov, Yu.V., and Safronov, V.G., Bobr (The Beaver), Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1986.Google Scholar
  32. Donkor, N.T. and Fryxell, J.M., Lowland boreal forest characterization in Algonquin Provincial Park relative to beaver (Castor canadensis) foraging and edaphic factors, Plant Ecol., 2000, vol. 148, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  33. Donkor, N.D. and Fryxell, J.M., Impact of beaver foraging on structure of lowland boreal forests of Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, For. Ecol. Manage., 1999, vol. 118, pp. 83–92.Google Scholar
  34. Doucet, C.M. and Fryxell, J.M., The effect of nutritional quality on forage preference by beaver, Oikos, 1993, vol. 76, pp. 201–208.Google Scholar
  35. Dvornikov, M.G. and Dvornikova, N.P., Vzaimosvyazi promyslovykh mlekopitayushchikh s rastitel’nym pokrovom v lesnykh ekosistemakh Yuzhnogo Urala (Relationship of Hunting Mammals with Vegetation Cover in Forest Ecosystems of Southern Ural), Sverdlovsk: Preprint, 1986.Google Scholar
  36. Dvornikova, N.P., Dynamics of populations and biocenotic role of river beaver in Southern Ural, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Sverdlovsk: Inst. Ekol. Rast. Zhivotn., 1987.Google Scholar
  37. D’yakov, Yu.V., Bobry Evropeiskoi chasti Sovetskogo Soyuza (Beavers of European Part of Soviet Union), Moscow: Moskovskii Rabochii, 1975.Google Scholar
  38. Fadeev, E.V., Influence of the beavers on environment, Tr. Voronezh. Gos. Zapov., 1976, no. 21, vol. 2, pp. 112116.Google Scholar
  39. Fedorov, F.V. and Kan’shiev, V.Ya., Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl.) in Kostomukshskii Nature Reserve: population condition, role in biocenosises and human economic, Mater. III Mezhd. simp. “Dinamika populyatsii okhotnich’ikh zhivotnykh Severnoi Evropy,” 16–20 iyunya 2002 g., Sortavala (Proc. III Int. Symp. “Dynamics of Population of Hunting Animals in Northern Europe,” June 16–20, 2002, Sortavala), Petrozavodsk, 2003, pp. 65–69.Google Scholar
  40. Fryxell, J.M., Forest diversity in relation to central place foraging by beavers, Abstracts of 7th International Theriological Congress, Acapulco, Mexico, 1997, p. 113.Google Scholar
  41. Fryxell, J.M., Habitat suitability and source-sink dynamics of beavers, J. Anim. Ecol., 2001, vol. 70, pp. 310–316.Google Scholar
  42. Fryxell, J.M., Space use by beavers in relation to resource abundance, Oikos, 1992, vol. 64, pp. 474–478.Google Scholar
  43. Fryxell, J.M. and Doucet, C.M., Provisioning time and central place foraging in beavers, Can. J. Zool., 1991, vol. 69, pp. 1308–1313.Google Scholar
  44. Fryxell, J.M., Vamosi, S.M., Walton, R.A., and Doucet, C.M., Retention time and functional response of beavers, Oikos, 1994, vol. 71, pp. 207–214.Google Scholar
  45. Gallant, D., Bérubé, C.H., Tremblay, E., and Vasseur, L., An extensive study of the foraging ecology of beavers (Castor canadensis) in relation to habitat quality, Can. J. Zool., 2004, vol. 82, pp. 922–933.Google Scholar
  46. Gill, D., The evolution of a discrete beaver habitat, Can. Field-Nat., 1972, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 233–239.Google Scholar
  47. Gorshkov, D., It is possible to use beaver building activity to reduce lake sedimentation?, Lutra, 2003, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 189–196.Google Scholar
  48. Grevtsev, V.I., The results of reacclimatization and prospects of reproduction of the beavers in Vologda oblast, in Intensifikatsiya vosproizvodstva resursov okhotnich’ikh zhivotnykh (Intensive Reproduction of Hunting Animals), Kirov, 1990, pp. 206–219.Google Scholar
  49. Grevtsev, V.I., Beaver resources in Russia: current tendencies and regional problems of use, in Issledovaniya bobrov v Evrazii (Study of the Beavers in Eurasia), Kirov: Al’fa-Kom, 2011, no. 1, pp. 35–39.Google Scholar
  50. Gurnell, A.M., Analysis of the effects of beaver dam-building activities on local hydrology, Scott. Nat. Herit. Rev., 1997, no. 85.Google Scholar
  51. Haasberg, O. and Rosell, F., Selective foraging on woody plant species by the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in Telemark, Norway, J. Zool. (London), 2006, vol. 270, pp. 201–208.Google Scholar
  52. Halley, D.J. and Rosell, F., Population and distribution of European beavers (Castor fiber), Lutra, 2003, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 91–101.Google Scholar
  53. Härkönen, S., Forest damage caused by Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) in South Savo, Finland, Silva Fenn., 1999, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 247–259.Google Scholar
  54. Hartman, G., Habitat selection by European beaver (Castor fiber) colonizing a boreal landscape, J. Zool. (London), 1996, vol. 240, pp. 317–325.Google Scholar
  55. Hartman, G., Irruptive population development of European beaver (Castor fiber) in southwest Sweden, Lutra, 2003, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 103–108.Google Scholar
  56. Hartman, G. and Törnlöv, S., Influence of watercourse depth and width on dam-building behavior by Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), J. Zool. (London), 2006, vol. 286, pp. 127–131.Google Scholar
  57. Hastings, A., Byers, J.E., Crooks, J.A., et al., Ecosystem engineering in space and time, Ecol. Lett., 2007, vol. 10, pp. 153–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Heidecke, D. and Schumacher, A., Population development of the beaver (Castor fiber albicus) in SachenAnhalt, Germany, Proc. 1st European Beaver Symposium, Bratislava, Slovakia, September 15–19, 1997, Pachinger, K., Ed., Bratislava, Slovakia: Inst. Ecol., 1997, pp. 47–55.Google Scholar
  59. Hill, A.R. and Duval, T.P., Beaver dams along an agricultural stream in southern Ontario, Canada: their impact on riparian zone hydrology and nitrogen chemistry, Hydrol. Process., 2009. doi: 10.1002/hup.7249Google Scholar
  60. Hillman, G.R., Flood wave attenuation by a wetland following a beaver dam failure on a second order boreal stream, Wetlands, 1998, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21–34.Google Scholar
  61. Hood, G. and Beyley, S., Beaver dams along an agricultural stream in southern Ontario, Canada: their impact on riparian zone hydrology and nitrogen chemistry, Hydrol. Process, 2009. doi: 10.1002/hup.7249Google Scholar
  62. Host, G. and Meysembourg, P., A comparison of recent and historic landscape changes by beaver activity in Voyageurs National Park, 1927–2005, in Final Report to National Park Service, Great Lakes Northern Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, Great Lakes Network, 2008. http://gisdata.nrri.umn.edu/compare/GP/VOYA%Beaver%20Final%20Report%20Text%20and%20Figure%/209-23-08.pdf/compare/GP/VOYA%Beaver%20Final%20Report%20Text%20and%20Figure%/209-23-08.pdfGoogle Scholar
  63. Howard, R. and Larson, J.S., A stream habitat classification system for beaver, J. Wildl. Manage, 1985, vol. 49, pp. 19–25.Google Scholar
  64. Hyvönen, T. and Nummi, P., Habitat dynamics of beaver Castor canadensis at two spatial scales, Wildl. Biol., 2008, vol. 14, pp. 302–308.Google Scholar
  65. Ives, R., The beaver-meadows complex, J. Geomorphol., 1942, no. 5, pp. 191–203.Google Scholar
  66. Jakes, A.F., Snodgrass, J.W., and Burger, J., Castor canadensis (beaver) impoundment associated with geomorphology of southeastern streams, Southeast. Nat., 2007, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 271–282.Google Scholar
  67. Jarema, S.I., Samson, J., McGill, B.J., and Humphries, M.M., Variation in abundance across a species’ range predicts climate change responses in the range interior will exceed those at the edge: a case study with North American beaver, Global Chang. Biol., 2009, vol. 15, pp. 508–522. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01732.xGoogle Scholar
  68. Jenkins, S.H., A size-distance relation in food selection by beavers, Ecology, 1980, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 740–746.Google Scholar
  69. Jenkins, S.H., Food selection by beavers. A multidimensional contingence table analysis, Oecologia (Berlin), 1975, vol. 21, pp. 157–173.Google Scholar
  70. John, S. and Klein, A., Beaver pond development and its hydrogeomorphic and sedimentary impact on the Jossa floodplain in Germany, Lutra, 2003, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 183–188.Google Scholar
  71. Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J., Boundary dynamics at the aquatic-terrestrial interface: the influence of beaver and geomorphology, Landscape Ecol., 1987, no. 1, pp. 47–57.Google Scholar
  72. Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J., Browse selection by beaver: effects on riparian forest composition, Can. J. For. Res., 1990, vol. 20, pp. 1036–1043.Google Scholar
  73. Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J., The use of geographic information system to analyze long-term landscape alteration by beaver, Landscape Ecol., 1990, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5–19.Google Scholar
  74. Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. and Shachak, M., Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical ecosystem engineers, Ecology, 1997, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 1946–1957.Google Scholar
  75. Kataev, G.D. and Bragin, A.B., The river beavers at the northern edge of area, in Ekosistemy ekstremal’nykh uslovii sredy v zapovednikakh RSFSR (Ecosystems of Extremal Environmental Conditions in Nature Reserves of RSFSR), Moscow, 1986, pp. 148–159.Google Scholar
  76. Klenner-Fringes, B. and Schrëpfer, R., Selective diversity of woody plants and foraging behavior of Castor fiber albicus in a river valley in northwest Germany, five years after the reintroduction, The Third International Beaver Symposium, Abstracts of Papers, Arnhem, The Netherlands, October 13–15, 2003, 2003, pp. 49–50.Google Scholar
  77. Kotliar, N.B., Application of the new keystone-species concept to prairie dogs: how well does it work?, Conserv. Biol., 2000, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1715–1721.Google Scholar
  78. Kudryashov, V.S., The factors affecting the population dynamics of river beaver in Okskiy Nature Reserve, Tr. Okskogo Gos. Zapov., 1975, no. 11, pp. 5–124.Google Scholar
  79. La Page, C. and Keddy, P.A., Reserve of buried seeds in beaver ponds, Wetlands, 1998, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 242–248.Google Scholar
  80. Legeida, I.S., Ecological activity of the beavers and protection of riparian biogeocenosises of Ukraine, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Kiev: Inst. Evol. Morfol. Ekol. Zhivotn., 1992.Google Scholar
  81. Lizarralde, M., Presence and ecology of beavers in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, Proc. Int. Workshop for Beaver Control in Patagonia, Saavedra, B. and Silva, C.A., Eds., Chile: Wildlife Conservation Soc., 2008, pp. 14–23. http://www.karukinkanatural.cl Google Scholar
  82. Lizarralde, M., Escobar, J., and Deferrari, G., Invader species in Argentina: a review about beaver (Castor canadensis) population on Terra del Fuego ecosystem, Interciencia, 2004, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 352–356.Google Scholar
  83. Martell, K.A., Foot, A.L., and Cummimg, S.G., Riparian disturbance due to beaver (Castor canadensis) in Alberta’s boreal mixed wood forests: implications for management, Ecoscience, 2006, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 164–171.Google Scholar
  84. McComb, W., Sedell, J.R., and Buchholz, T.D., Dam-site selection by beavers in Eastern Oregon basin, Gr. Basin Nat., 1990, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 273–281.Google Scholar
  85. McDowell, D.M. and Naiman, R.J., Structure and function of benthic invertebrate stream community as influenced by beaver (Castor canadensis), Oecologia (Berlin), 1986, vol. 68, pp. 481–489.Google Scholar
  86. McMaster, R.T. and McMaster, N.D., Composition, structure, and dynamics of vegetation in fifteen beaverimpacted wetlands in Western Massachusetts, Rhodora, 2001, vol. 103, no. 915, pp. 293–320.Google Scholar
  87. Mitchell, S.C. and Gunjak, R.A., Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream, J. Anim. Ecol., 2007, vol. 76, pp. 1062–1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mitshell, C.C. and Niering, W.A., Vegetation change in a topogenic bog follows beaver flooding, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club., 1993, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 136–147.Google Scholar
  89. Müller-Schwarze, D. and Schulte, B.A., Behavioral and ecological characteristics of a “climax” population of beaver (Castor canadensis), in Beaver Protection, Management and Utilization in Europe and North America, New York: Kluwer Academic, 1999, pp. 161–177.Google Scholar
  90. Müller-Schwarze, D. and Sun, L., The Beaver. Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer, Ithaca, USA: Comstock Publ. Assoc., 2003.Google Scholar
  91. Naiman, R.J., Johnson, C.A., and Kelley, J.C., Alteration of North America streams by beaver, BioScience, 1988, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 753–762.Google Scholar
  92. Naiman, R.J., Melillo, J.M., and Hobbie, J.E., Ecosystem alteration of boreal forest streams by beaver (Castor canadensis), Ecology, 1986, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1254–1269.Google Scholar
  93. Naiman, R.J., Pinay, G., Johnston, C., and Pastor, J., Beaver influence on the long-term biogeochemical characteristics of boreal forest drainage networks, Ecology, 1994, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 905–921.Google Scholar
  94. Nikolaev, A.G., Long-term population dynamics of beavers in Voronezh Biosphere Reserve, Tr. Voronezh. Gos. Zapov., 1997, no. 23, pp. 81–98.Google Scholar
  95. Nolet, B.A., Hoekstra, A., and Ottenheim, M.M., Selective foraging on woody species by the beaver Castor fiber, and its impact on a riparian willow forest, Biol. Conserv., 1994, vol. 70, pp. 117–128.Google Scholar
  96. Nolet, B.A. and Rosell, F., Territoriality and time budgets in beavers during sequential settlement, Can. J. Zool., 1994, vol. 72, pp. 1227–1237.Google Scholar
  97. Novak, M., Beaver, Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America, Novak, M., Baker, J.A., Obbard, M.E., and Malloch, B., Eds., Ontario: Minist. Nat. Resour., 1987, pp. 283–312.Google Scholar
  98. Panov, G.M., Bobry (The Beavers), Kiev: Urozhai, 1990.Google Scholar
  99. Parker, H., Haugen, A., Kristinsen, Ø., et al., Landscape use and economic value of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) on a large forest in Southern Norway, Proc. First Euro-American Beaver Congress, Busher, P. and Gorshkov, Y., Eds., Kazan: Volga-Kama Nat. Nature Zapov., 2001, pp. 77–95.Google Scholar
  100. Parker, M., Beaver, water quality, and riparian systems, Proc. of Wyoming Water 1986 and Streamside Zone Conference, Wyoming Water Research Center and UW Agricultural Extension Service, Brosz, D.J. and Rodgers, J.D., Eds., Casper, USA: Univ. of Wyoming, 1986, pp. 88–94.Google Scholar
  101. Pastor, J. and Naiman, R.J., Selective foraging and ecosystem processes in boreal forests, Am. Nat., 1992, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 690–705.Google Scholar
  102. Persico, L. and Meyer, G., Holocene beaver damming, fluvial geomorphology, and climate in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Quat. Res., 2009, vol. 71, pp. 340–353. doi 10.1016//j.yqres.2008.09.07Google Scholar
  103. Petrosyan, V.G., Golubkov, V.V., Goryainova, Z.I., Zav’yalov, N.A., Al’bov, S.A., Khlyap, L.A., and Dgebuadze, Yu.Yu., Modeling of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.) population dynamics in the basin of a small Oka River tributary, the Tadenka River (Prioksko-Terrasnyi Nature Reserve), Russ. J. Biol. Invasions, 2013, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 45–53.Google Scholar
  104. Pinkowski, B., Foraging behavior of beavers (Castor canadensis) in North Dakota, J. Mammal., 1983, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 312–314.Google Scholar
  105. Pollock, M.M., Beechie, T.J., and Jordan, C.E., Geomorphic change upstream of beaver dams in Bridge Creek, an ancient Columbia River basin, eastern Oregon, Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 2007, vol. 32, pp. 1174–1185. doi: 10.1002/esp.1553Google Scholar
  106. Pollock, M.M., Heim, M., and Werner, D., Hydrologic and geomorphic effects of beaver dams and their influence on fishes, Am. Fish. Soc. Symp., 2003, vol. 37, pp. 213–233.Google Scholar
  107. Pollock, M.M., Pess, G.R., and Beechie, T.Y., The importance of beaver ponds to goho salmon production in Stillaguamish River basin, Washington, USA, North Am. J. Fish. Manage., 2004, vol. 24, pp. 749–760.Google Scholar
  108. Polvi, L.E. and Wohl, E., The beaver-meadow complex revisited — the role of beavers in post-glacial floodplain development, Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 2012, vol. 37, pp. 332–346. doi: 10.1002/esp.2261Google Scholar
  109. Power, M.E., Tilman, D., Estes, J.A., et al., Challenges in quest for keystones, BioScience, 1996, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 609–620.Google Scholar
  110. Pupininkas, S., The state of the beaver (Castor fiber) population and characteristics of beaver sites in Eastern Lithuania, Acta Zool. Lituan., 1999, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 20–26.Google Scholar
  111. Rabotnov, T.A., Fitotsenologiya (Phytocenology), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1978.Google Scholar
  112. Raffel, T.R., Smith, N., Cortright, C., and Gatz, A.J., Central place foraging by beaver (Castor canadensis) in a complex lake habitat, Am. Midl. Nat., 2009, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 62–72. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1674/0003-0031-162.1.62 Google Scholar
  113. Ray, H.L., Ray, A.W., and Rebertus, A.J., Rapid establishment of fish in isolated peatland beaver ponds, Wetlands, 2004, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 399–405.Google Scholar
  114. Remillard, M.M., Gruendling, G.K., and Bogucki, D.J., Disturbance by beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) and increased landscape heterogeneity, in Ecology Studies. Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance, Springer-Verlag, 1987, vol. 64, pp. 104–121.Google Scholar
  115. Ritche, M.E., The impact of selective foraging by beaver on forest community structure, 5th International Theriological Congress, Abstracts of Papers, Rome, 1989, vol. 1, p. 310.Google Scholar
  116. Rosell, F., Borzér, O., Collen, P., and Parker, H., Ecological impact of beavers Castor fiber and Castor canadensis and their ability to modify ecosystems, Mammal. Rev., 2005, vol. 35, nos. 3–4, pp. 248–276.Google Scholar
  117. Ruedemann, R. and Schoomaker, W., Beaver dams as geological agents, Science, 1938, vol. 88, pp. 523–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Rutten, M.G., Flat-bottomed glacial valleys, braided rivers and the beaver, Geol. Mijnbouw, 1967, vol. 46, pp. 356–360.Google Scholar
  119. Sinitsyn, M.G., Analysis of environment-forming activity and assessment of habitats of the river beaver in Vetluzhsko-Unzhenskoe woodland using remote methods, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: Inst. Evol. Morfol. Ekol. Zhivotn., 1994.Google Scholar
  120. Sinitsyn, M.G. and Rusanov, A.V., Effect of river beaver on phytocenosises and soils of the small river valleys of Vetluzhsko-Unzhenskoe woodland, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Biol., 1989, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 30–40.Google Scholar
  121. Sinitsyn, M.G. and Rusanov, A.V., Effect of river beaver activity on relief of the valleys and river-beds of the small rivers of Vetluzhsko-Unzhenskoe woodland, Geomorfologiya, 1990, no. 1, pp. 85–91.Google Scholar
  122. Skinner, Q.D., Speck, J.E., Smith, M., and Adams, J.C., Stream water quality as influenced by beaver within grazing systems in Wyoming, J. Range Manage., 1984, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 142–146.Google Scholar
  123. Snodgrass, J.W., Temporal and spatial dynamics of beavercreated patches as influenced by management practices in a south-eastern North American landscape, J. Appl. Ecol., 1997, vol. 34, pp. 1043–1056.Google Scholar
  124. Snodgrass, J.W. and Miff, G.K., Influence of beavers on stream fish assemblages: effects of pond age and watershed position, Ecology, 1998, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 928–942.Google Scholar
  125. Solov’ev, V.A., Rechnoi bobr Evropeiskogo Severo-Vostoka (River Beaver of European Northeast), Leningrad: Leningr. Gos. Univ., 1991.Google Scholar
  126. Sturtevart, B., A model of wetland vegetation dynamics in simulated beaver impoundments, Ecol. Model., 1998, vol. 112, pp. 195–225.Google Scholar
  127. Suzuki, N. and McComb, W., Habitat classification models for beavers (Castor canadensis) in the streams of Central Oregon coast range, Northwest. Sci., 1998, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 102–110.Google Scholar
  128. Terwillinger, J. and Pastor, J., Small mammals, ectomycorrhizae, and conifer succession in beaver meadows, Oikos, 1999, vol. 85, pp. 83–94.Google Scholar
  129. Tolkachev, V.I. and Sautin, V.T., Bobry v Belorusskom Poles’e (Beavers of Belorussian Marshy Woodland), Minsk: Universitetskoe, 1988.Google Scholar
  130. Toretti, L., Beaver engineering and zoogeomorpological alterations to large fen landscapes in northern Michigan and Minnesota, M.S. Thesis, Marquette, MI: Northern Michigan Univ., 2002.Google Scholar
  131. Tyuryukanov, A.N., O chem govoryat i o chem molchat pochvy? (What Soil Speaks and Keeps Silence about?), Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1990.Google Scholar
  132. Ulevicius, A., Beaver (Castor fiber) in Lithuania: formation and some ecological characteristics of the present population, Proc. 1st European Beaver Symposium, Bratislava, Slovakia, September 15–19, 1997, Pachinger, K., Ed., Bratislava, Slovakia: Instit. Ecol., 1997, pp. 113–127.Google Scholar
  133. Voigt, D.R., Kolenosky, G.B., and Pimlott, D.H., Changes in summer foods of wolves in central Ontario, J. Wildl. Manage, 1976, vol. 40, pp. 663–668.Google Scholar
  134. Vompersky, S.E. and Erofeev, A.E., The influence of beaver colonies on irrigation canals and reclaimed stands, Lesovedenie, 2005, no. 6, pp. 64–72.Google Scholar
  135. Westbrook, C.J., Cooper, D.J., and Baker, B.W., Beaver assisted river formation, Riv. Res. Appl., 2010. doi: 10.1002/rra.1359Google Scholar
  136. Westbrook, C.J., Cooper, D.J., and Baker, B.W., Beaver dams and overbank floods influence groundwater-surface water interactions of a Rocky Mountain riparian area, Water Resour. Res., 2006, vol. 42, p. W06404. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004560Google Scholar
  137. Woo, M.K. and Waddington, J.M., Effect of beaver dams on subarctic wetland hydrology, Arctic, 1990, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 223–230.Google Scholar
  138. Wright, J.P., Gurney, W.S., and Jones, C.G., Patch dynamics in a landscape modified by ecosystem engineers, Oikos, 2004, vol. 105, pp. 336–348.Google Scholar
  139. Wright, J.P. and Jones, C.G., The concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers the years on: progress, limitation, and challenges, BioScience, 2006, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 203–209.Google Scholar
  140. Yanuta, G.G., Consistent patterns of forming of Mustelid (Mustelidae) species diversity and habitat carrying capacity in small watercourse valleys in Belarus in connection with construction activity od beaver (Castor fiber L.), Extended Abstract of Cand. (Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Minsk: Inst. Zool. Nats. Akad. Nauk Belarusi, 2007.Google Scholar
  141. Yasinskii, S.V., Formation of hydrological regime of watersheds of small plain rivers, Extended Abstract of Doctoral Sci. (Geogr.) Dissertation, Moscow: Inst. Geogr., Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2009.Google Scholar
  142. Yazan, Yu.P., Classification of beaver’s habitats in Verkhnaya Pechora basin, Tr. Pechoro-Ilychskogo Gos. Zapov., 1959, no. 7, pp. 241–267.Google Scholar
  143. Zahner, V., Dam building by beaver (Castor fiber) and its impact on forest stands in South Germany, in Proc. First Euro-American Beaver Congress, Busher, P. and Gorshkov, Y., Eds., Kazan: Volga-Kama Nat. Nature Zapov., 2001, pp. 119–126.Google Scholar
  144. Zav’yalov, N.A., Characteristics of beaver settlements, in Ekosistema maloi reki v izmenyayushchikhsya usloviyakh sredy (Ecosystem of Small River Affected by Variable Environmental Conditions), Krylov, A.V. and Bobrov, A.A., Eds., Moscow: KMK, 2007, pp. 26–33.Google Scholar
  145. Zavyalov, N.A., Beavers as the key species and ecosystem engineers, in Lektsii i materialy dokladov Vserosiiskoi shkoly-konferentsii “Ekosistemy malykh rek: bioraznoobrazie, ekologiya, okhrana,” Institut biologii vnutrennikh vod im. I.D. Papanina, 18–21 noyabrya 2008 g. (Proc. All-Russ. School-Conf. “Ecosystems of Small Rivers: Biodiversity, Ecology, and Protection,” Institute of Inland Water Biology, November 18–21, 2008), Yaroslavl: Yarosl. Pechat. Dvor, 2008, pp. 4–24.Google Scholar
  146. Zavyalov, N.A., Condition dynamics of the beaver food base in their settlements after several settling cycles, Povolzh. Ekol. Zh., 2012a, no. 2, pp. 196–207.Google Scholar
  147. Zavyalov, N.A., Special feature of ecology of beaver (Castor fiber) colonizing watersheds and initial parts of the hydrographic network, Zool. Zh., 2012b, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 464–474.Google Scholar
  148. Zavyalov, N.A., Al’bov, S.A., Petrosyan, V.G., Khlyap, L.A., and Goryainova, Z.I., Invasion of ecosystem engineer—the European beaver (Castor fiber)—in the Tadenka River basin (Prioksko-Terrasnyi Nature Reserve), Russ. J. Biol. Invasions, 2010, vol. 1,no. 4, pp. 267–281.Google Scholar
  149. Zavyalov, N.A., Krylov, A.V., Bobrov, A.A., et al., Vlyanie rechnogo bobra na ekosistemy malykh rek (Influence of River Beaver on Ecosystems of Small Rivers), Moscow: Nauka, 2005.Google Scholar
  150. Zavyalov, N.A. and Letsko, I.V., The beaver (Castor fiber L.) in Rdeysky Nature Reserve and adjacent territories, Mater. Mezhd. soveshch. v ramkakh VIII s”ezda Teriologicheskogo o-va “Teriofauna Rossii i sopredel’nykh territorii” (Proc. Int. Meeting of VIII Congress of Theriologic Society “Theriofauna of Russia and Neighboring Territories”), Moscow: KMK, 2008, p. 157.Google Scholar
  151. Zavyalov, N.A., Zheltukhin, A.S., and Korablev, N.P., The beavers of the Tyudma River (Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve, Russia): from a reintroduction to an “ideal” population, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Biol., 2011, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 12–23.Google Scholar
  152. Zavyalov, N.A. and Zueva, S.S., Influence of beaver dams on soil cover in Darvinskii Nature Reserve, Lesovedenie, 1998, no. 5, pp. 38–47.Google Scholar
  153. Zharkov, I.V., Structure and dynamics of populations of beavers in USSR, Extended Abstract of Doctoral Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rdeysky State Nature ReserveKholm, Novgorod oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations