Biology Bulletin Reviews

, Volume 2, Issue 5, pp 421–430 | Cite as

Model of early evolution of aposematic coloration

Article
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

The first stages of the evolution of aposematic coloration include a region of negative selection. During these stages, individuals with aberrant coloration remain rare, while predators are still not able to associate coloration with inedibility. A simulation model is proposed in which this problematic zone is overcome by individual selection to increase the conspicuousness of inedible prey in a small unisexual population. It is shown that, under this assumption, aposematic coloration develops within a wide range of parameters, such as the cost of inedibility, the cost of coloring, the survival rate of inedible prey after being attacked by a naive predator, and the probability of discovering of differently colored preys by predator, as well as the predator’s learning rate and memory depth. Thus, the early evolution of aposematic coloration does not require any unusual or unique set of circumstances; aposematic coloration, along with concomitant Bates mimicry, inevitably evolve within a wide range of initial conditions. Thus, the early evolution of aposematic coloration does not require any unusual or unique set of circumstances; aposematic coloration, along with concomitant Bates mimicry, inevitably evolves within a wide range of initial conditions. The loss of cryptic coloration by the original form, (e.g., due to a change in food preferences and, thus, the structure of the background coloring, changes in the habitat structure, color mutations, etc.) is one such condition.

Keywords

Biology Bulletin Review Predator Attack Memory Length Pheno Type Cryptic Coloration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benson, W.W., Evidence for the Evolution of Unpalatability through Kin Selection in the Heliconiinae (Lepidoptera), Am. Natur., 1971, vol. 105, pp. 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Endler, J.A., Frequency-Dependent Predation, Crypsis and Aposematic Coloration, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B, 1988, vol. 319, pp. 505–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gamberale, G. and Tullberg, B., Aposematism and Gregariousness: The Combined Effect on Group Size and Coloration on Signal Repellence, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 1998, vol. 265, pp. 889–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Herrera, C.M., Aposematic Insects as Six-Legged Fruits: Incidental Short-Circuiting of Their Defense by Frugivorous Birds, Am. Natur., 1985, vol. 126, pp. 286–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Holloway, G.J., Brakefield, P.M., Jong, P.W., de, Ottenheim, M.M., Vos, H., de, Kesbeke, F., and Peynenburg, L., A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of an Aposematic Colour Pattern and Its Ecological Implications, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B, 1995, vol. 348, pp. 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Komarek, S., Mimicry, Aposematism and Related Phenomena in Animals and Plants, Prague: Vesmir, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. Kott, H., Prisposobitel’naya okraska zhivotnykh (Adaptive Coloration of Animals), Moscow: Izd. Inost. Liter., 1950.Google Scholar
  8. Leimar, O., Enquist, M., and Sillen-Tullberg, B., Evolutionary Stability of Aposematic Coloration and Prey Unprofitability: A Theoretical Analysis, Am. Natur., 1986, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 469–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lindström, L., Alatalo, R.V., Lyytinen, A., and Mappes, J., Predator Experience on Cryptic Prey Affects the Survival of Conspicuous Aposematic Prey, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 2001a, vol. 268, pp. 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lindström, L., Alatalo, R.V., Lyytinen, A., and Mappes, J., Strong Antiapostatic Selection against Novel Rare Aposematic Prey, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2001b, vol. 98, no. 16, pp. 9181–9184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marples, N.M., Kelly, D.J., and Thomas, R.J., Perspective: The Evolution of Warning Coloration Is not Paradoxical, Evolution, 2005, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 933–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Merilaita, S. and Ruxton, G.D., Aposematic Signals and the Relationship between Conspicuousness and Distinctiveness, J. Theor. Biol., 2007, vol. 245, pp. 268–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Prudic, K.L., Oliver, J.C., and Sperling, F.A.H., The Signal Environment Is More Important than Diet or Chemical Specialization in the Evolution of Warning Coloration, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2007, vol. 104, pp. 19381–19386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Puurtinen, M. and Kaitala, V., Conditions for the Spread of Conspicuous Warning Signals: A Numerical Model with Novel Insights, Evolution, 2006, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 2246–2256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Rubino, D.L. and McCarthy, B.C., Presence of Aposematic (Warning) Coloration in Vascular Plants of Southeastern, Ohio, J. Torrey Botan. Soc., 2004, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 252–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ruxton, G.D., Sherratt, T.N., and Speed, M.P., Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals, and Mimicry, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  17. Sandre, S.-L., Stevens, M., and Mappes, J., The Effect of Predator Appetite, Prey Warning Coloration and Luminance on Predator Foraging Decisions, Behaviour, 2010, vol. 147, pp. 1121–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sherratt, T.N. and Beatty, C.D., The Evolution of Warning Signals as Reliable Indicators of Prey Defense, Am. Natur., 2003, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 377–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sillén-Tullberg, B. and Bryant, E.H., The Evolution of Aposematic Coloration in Distasteful Prey: An Individual Selection Model, Evolution, 1983, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 993–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Speed, M.P. and Ruxton, G.D., Aposematism: What Should Our Starting Point Be?, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B: Biol. Sci., 2005, vol. 272, pp. 431–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Speed, M.P., Brockhurst, M.A., and Ruxton, G.D., The Dual Benefits of Aposematism: Predator Avoidance and Enhanced Resource Collection, Evolution, 2010, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1622–1633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wiklund, C. and Järvi, T., Survival of Distasteful Insects after Being Attacked by Naive Birds: A Reappraisal of the Theory of Aposematic Coloration Evolving through Individual Selection, Evolution, 1982, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 998–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Problems of Ecology and Productivity of ForestsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations