Porcine endogenous retroviruses: What are the risks of infection transmission in xenotransplantation?
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Modern studies on porcine endogenous retroviruses are considered in the review. Data on the nucleotide sequences of retroviruses, their expression, and the isolation of mature virions is discussed. The tropism of endogenous retroviruses to human cells and retrospective studies of patients are considered in detail. A critical overview of works on in vitro and in vivo interspecific transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses is presented. Tactics for preventing possible infection and treating humans for it are discussed. Based on the overviewed data, it is concluded that the risk of infection transmission from xenograft recipients to the rest of the population is very low. This low risk can be further reduced by careful observation and, probably, vaccination of contacting persons, as well as by preventive use of antiviral drugs. The minor risk of infection transmission can also be reduced by application of modern biotechnological methods to raise pigs that have no endogenous viruses tropic to humans.
KeywordsWild Boar Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Porcine Cell Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryo Endogenous Virus
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