Convergences in the Architectonics of Tremadodes Musculature and the Relationship Between the Concepts of Convergence and Parallelism


New examples of convergences in the architectonics of trematode musculature are described. These include the complete reduction of the diagonal muscles in the sedentary areas of the integument, the peculiarities of distribution of the dorsoventral muscles within the ventral deepening of the body, the presence of radial parenchymal muscles in the hollow radially symmetrical areas of the body, the spatial distribution of the pharyngeal protractors, the removal of the peripheral layers of the muscles of the oral sucker, the formation of chordal muscles in the oral sucker, and some others. The validity of separating the concepts of convergence and parallelism is discussed. The disadvantages of separation criteria such as the degree of kinship of phylogenetic groups, the occupation of adaptive zones of different scales, and the formation of analogous or homologous organs on the basis of evolution are named. Raising parallelism to the rank of an independent evolutionary phenomenon is estimated as unreasonable.

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Yastrebov, M.V., Glagoleva, E.N. & Yastrebova, I.V. Convergences in the Architectonics of Tremadodes Musculature and the Relationship Between the Concepts of Convergence and Parallelism. Inland Water Biol 13, 507–515 (2020).

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  • Trematoda
  • musculature architectonics
  • convergence
  • parallelism