Nanotechnologies in Russia

, Volume 12, Issue 11–12, pp 583–588 | Cite as

Theoretical Analysis of Passivating Pyrophoric Nanopowders: A Macrokinetics Approach

Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper we use a macrokinetics approach to propose and develop a mechanism for the ignition and passivation of a pyrophoric nanopowder layer. Assuming that the oxidizer diffusion is the rate-limiting step in the wave-propagation mechanism of passivation, we are able to determine the dependence of the maximum temperature of the nanopowder passivation on key parameters. As a result, two-stage passivation with an increasing oxidant concentration in the gas phase at the second step is proposed. We have shown that, at an allowable warm-up level, the two-stage process reduces the time required for the passivation of a nanopowder layer to be completed by several times. The minimum time of the transition to the second stage at a given rate of temperature growth has been analytically predicted. We have also made numerical simulatons that show a good agreement with the results of our approximate calculations, additionally supporting the conclusions based on the theoretical analysis used. The macrokinetic approach is successfully applied to adeqautely described the passivation of pyrophoric nanopowders when it is strictly limited due to small particle sizes by the diffusion transfer of the passivating gas into the backfill.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. G. Kolmakov, S. M. Barinov, and M. I. Alymov, Principles of Technology and Application of Nanomaterials (Fizmatlit, Moscow, 2013) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Pivkina, P. Ulyanova, Y. Frolov, S. Zavyalov, and J. Schoonman, “Nanomaterials for heterogeneous combustion,” Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 29, 39–48 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. M. Gorrie, P. W. Kopf, and S. Toby, “The kinetics of the reaction of some pyrophoric metals with oxygen,” J. Phys. Chem. 71, 3842–3845 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. G. Gnedovets, A. B. Ankudinov, V. A. Zelenskii, E. P. Kovalev, M. I. Alymov, and H. Wisniewska-Weinert, “Synthesis of micron particles with Fe–Fe4N core-shell structure at low-temperature gaseous nitriding of iron powder in a stream of ammonia,” Inorg. Mater.: Appl. Res. 7, 303–309 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. A. Zhukova and S. I. Khudyaev, “On the averaging method in calculating the exothermic reaction in a porous body-gas system,” Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva, No. 3, 47–53 (1989).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. E. Kolovertnykh, V. B. Ulybin, S. I. Khudyaev, and A. S. Shteinberg, “To the analysis of exothermic transformation regimes in a porous layer with a diffusion supply,” Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva, No. 1, 72–79 (1982).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Hosokawa, K. Nogi, M. Naito, and T. Yokoyama, Nanoparticle Technology Handbook (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Flannery, T. G. Desai, T. Matsoukas, S. Lotfizadeh, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “Passivation and stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles for energetic materials,” J. Nanomater. 2015, 185–199 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. J. Meziani, C. E. Bunker, F. Lu, et al., “Formation and properties of stabilized aluminum nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 703–709 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Nagarajan and T. A. Hatton, Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Stabilization, Passivation, and Functionalization, ACS Symposium Series (Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC, 2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. I. Alymov, M. M. Rubtsov, B. S. Seplyarsky, V. A. Zelensky, and A. B. Ankudinov, “Temporal characteristics of ignition and combustion of iron nanopowders in the air,” Mendeleev Commun. 26, 452–454 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. M. Rubtsov, B. S. Seplyarsky, V. A. Zelensky, and A. B. Ankudinov, “Synthesis and characterization of passivated iron nanoparticles,” Mendeleev Commun. 26, 549–551 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii, Diffusion and Heat Transfer in Chemical Kinetics (Plenum, New York, 1969; Nauka, Moscow, 1987).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ya. B. Zel’dovich, G. I. Barenblatt, V. B. Librovich, and G. M. Makhviladze, Mathematical Theory of Combustion and Explosions (Nauka, Moscow, 1980; Plenum, New York, 1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. G. Merzhanov, V. V. Barzykin, and V. G. Abramov, “The theory of thermal explosion from N. N. Semenov to our days,” Khim. Fiz. 15, (6), 3–44 (1996).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Seplyarsky
    • 1
  • T. P. Ivleva
    • 1
  • M. I. Alymov
    • 1
  1. 1.Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials ScienceRussian Academy of SciencesChernogolovka, Moscow oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations