Nanotechnologies in Russia

, Volume 6, Issue 1–2, pp 17–42 | Cite as

Biodistribution and toxicity of gold nanoparticles

  • N. G. Khlebtsov
  • L. A. Dykman


This paper reviews data on the biodistribution and toxicity of five types of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) (atomic clusters and colloidal particles with diameters of 1 to 200 nm, gold nanorods (GNRs), silica/gold nanoshells (GNSs), hollow GNSs, and nanowires) in in vivo and in vitro experiments. Published data from 1995 to March 2010 are systematized according to the types and parameters of particles, their surface functionalization, models (cell or animal), examined organs, applied doses, administration routes, duration of experiments, and methods used for assessing the toxicity and concentration of GNPs in organs and their distribution between cells. A critical analysis of the data suggests some general conclusions on the key parameters of nanoparticles; methods for modifying their surface; and the doses that determine the type and kinetics of biodistribution, cytotoxicity, and toxicity at the body level.


CTAB Gold NANOPARTICLES Dynamic Light Scattering Administration Route Gold Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and MicroorganismsRussian Academy of SciencesSaratovRussia
  2. 2.Saratov State UniversitySaratovRussia

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