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Presynaptic receptors regulating the time course of neurotransmitter release from vertebrate nerve endings

  • D. V. Samigullin
  • V. F. Khuzakhmetova
  • A. N. Tsentsevitsky
  • E. A. Bukharaeva
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Abstract

A number of different types of presynaptic receptors was revealed in central and peripheral chemical synapses activated both by main mediator and co-mediators released simultaneously. Physiological significance and mechanisms of functioning of these receptors are not clear yet. They are assumed to provide negative or positive feedback decreasing or increasing the number of neurotransmitter quanta released in response to nerve impulse and thus regulating synaptic transmission. At the same time, there is one more way of secretion process modulation associated with the changes of timing of transmitter release. This mechanism was shown to contribute to the efficiency of synaptic transmission. The role of presynaptic receptors in regulation of the kinetics of quanta release is one of the interesting questions of modern neurophysiology. This paper overviews the results obtained by the authors that demonstrate the contribution of presynaptic receptors of different types into the regulation of temporal parameters of quantal secretion at the vertebrates neuromuscular junction. It was shown that activation of the cholinergic nicotinic receptors leads to a decrease of the amplitude of postsynaptic response not only due to reduction of the quantity of released quanta but also due to increased the level of asynchronous release. On the contrary, the facilitating effect of catecholamines on the neuromuscular synapse is the result of activation of presynaptic β1-adrenoreceptors which leads to greater synchronization of release process and, consequently, to the increase of the amplitude of the postsynaptic response. Presynaptic purine receptors, involved in the modulation the intensity of secretion, are also capable of alteration of the time course of secretion. Activation of ryanodine receptors results in the increase of the number of quanta released with prolonged latencies leading to appearance of the phase of delayed asynchronous neurotransmitter release.

Keywords

synaptic transmission presynaptic receptors quantal release of neurotransmitter time course of quantal release 

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. V. Samigullin
    • 1
  • V. F. Khuzakhmetova
    • 1
  • A. N. Tsentsevitsky
    • 1
  • E. A. Bukharaeva
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and BiophysicsRussian Academy of SciencesKazanRussia
  2. 2.Kazan State Medical UniversityKazanRussia

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