Russian Journal of Pacific Geology

, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 349–368 | Cite as

A new Permian bivalve zonal scale of northeastern Asia. Article 1: Zonal subdivision

  • A. S. Biakov


Extensive new data obtained during the recent decade on several Permian reference sections in the northern, western, and southern Verkhoyansk region; the Balygychan block; the Omolon massif; and some adjacent regions provided grounds for substantial refining of the Permian bivalve zonal scale of northeastern Asia. The modified version of this scale includes 24 biostratigraphic units ranked as zones, subzones, and faunal beds. Zonal assemblages of bivalve mollusks were refined and supplemented, and the age of the zones was specified and substantiated. The stratigraphic distribution of the defined bivalve taxa is illustrated by a special detailed table.


Permian bivalves zones subzones beds with fauna northeastern Asia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. F. Bogoslovskaya and A. A. Shkolin, “Ammonoidea,” in Biota of the Eastern European Asia at the Early-Late Permian Boundary. Proceedings of International Symposium on Upper Permian Stratotypes of the Volga Region (GEOS, Moscow, 1998), pp. 147–155 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. F. Bogoslovskaya and M. S. Boiko, “The Evolution and Distribution of the Early Permian Genus Uraloceras (Ammonoidea),” Paleontol. J. 36(6), 598–605 (2002).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. S. Biakov, “Stratigraphic Significance of Permian Inoceram Bivalves of Northeastern Russia,” in Phanerozoic Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Northeastern Russia (SVKNII DVNTs AN SSSR, Magadan, 1988), pp. 60–65 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. S. Biakov and I. L. Vedernikov, Stratigraphy of the Permian Deposits of the Northeastern Surrounding Structures of the Okhotsk Massif, Central and Southeastern Parts of the Ayan-Yuryakh Anticlinorim (Preprint) (SVKNII DVO AN SSSR, Magadan, 1990) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. S. Biakov, “Beds with Fauna and Bivalve Assemblages from the Permian Sections of the Southeastern Omolon Massif,” in Proceedings on Geology and Minerals of Northeastern USSR (Kn. izd-vo, Magadan, 1991), Vol. 27, pp. 122–128 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. S. Biakov, Candidate’s Dissertation in Geology and Mineralogy (PIN AN SSSR, Moscow, 1991).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. S. Biakov, “Permian Inoceramus-Like Mollusks of Intomodesma Popow Genus,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 120–123 (1991).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. S. Biakov, “New Species of the Permian Inoceram-Like Bivalves from the Permian Sediments of Northeastern USSR,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 27–37 (1992).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. S. Biakov, “Permian Ctenodont Bivalves from Northeastern Russia,” Paleontol. J. 32(2), 129–132 (1998).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. S. Biakov and V. G. Ganelin, “Early Tatarian (Gizhigian) Biotic Crisis in Northeastern Asian and its Possible Sources,” in Biostratigraphy and Environmental-Biospherical Aspects of Paleontology. Abstracts of 34th Session of the Paleontological Society (St. Petersburg, 1998), pp. 17–18 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. S. Biakov, “Two New Zonal Species of Inoceram-Like Bivalves from the Upper Permian of Northeastern Asia,” Paleontol. J. 33(3), 229–231 (1999).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. S. Biakov, “Correlation of The Marine Upper Permian Boreal Superrealm using Bivalve Mollusks and Possible Counterparts of the Bivalve Zones of Northeastern Asia in the off-Boreal Regions,” in Reports of International Symposium “Upper Permian Stratotypes of the Volga Region,” Moscow, 1999 (GEOS, Moscow, 1999), pp. 222–227 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. S. Biakov, “Bivalve Zonation in Permian Deposits of Northeastern Asia,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 8(1), 35–54 (2000).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. S. Biakov, “Interregional and Transregional Correlation of the Permian Deposits of the Boreal Basins on the Basis of Bivalve Mollusks,” Tikhookean. Geol. 19(3), 3–11 (2000).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. S. Biakov, “Complete Succession of the Permian in Northeast Asia: Paleontological Evidence for the Presence of Changhsingian Analogues,” Dokl. Earth Sci. 378(3), 399–401 (2001).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. S. Biakov, “Permian Bivalves from the Transbaikal Region,” Paleontol. J. 36(5), 460–468 (2002).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. S. Biakov and V. G. Ganelin, “Refinement of the Lower Permian Palaeoneilo Parenica of Northeastern Asia,” in Proceedings of 4th All-Russia Conference “Permian and Triassic Paleontology and Stratigraphy of Northern Eurasia,” Moscow, Russia, 2002 (Paleontolog. Inst. RAN, Moscow, 2002), p. 37 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. S. Biakov, Permian Sediments of the Balygychan Upland (SVKNII DVO RAN, Magadan, 2004) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. S. Biakov, “New Species of Astartids and Pholadomyids (Bivalvia) and Beds with Fauna from the Lower Permian of the Omolon Massif, Northeastern Asia,” Paleontol. J. 39(2), 30–37 (2005).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. S. Biakov, Yu. Yu. Ivanov, E. V. Kolesov, and T. I. Mikhalitsyna, “Terminal Permian Section of the Southern Verkhoyansk Region (New Data),” Vestn. Severnogo Mezhdunar. Univ., No. 4, 42–47 (2005).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. S. Biakov, I. L. Vedernikov, and E. V. Kolesov, “Preliminary Results of Study of the Permian Sedimens of the Southern Omulevka Block, Northeastern Asia,” in Geology, Geography, and Biodiversity of Northeastern Russia: Proceedings of Far East Regional Conference in Memory of A.P. Vas’kovskii and in its 95th Anniversary (SVNTs DVO RAN, Magadan, 2006), pp. 71–75 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. S. Biakov, “Permian Biostratigraphy of the Northern Okhotsk Region (Northeast Asia),” Stratigr. Geol. Corelation 15(2), 161–184 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. S. Biakov, “New Ideas on the System of the Permian Inoceramus-Like Bivalves of the Eastern Boreal Zone,” Paleontol. J. 42(3), 232–242 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. S. Biakov, “New Zonal Species of the Permian Bivalve Mollusks of Northeastern Asia,” Vestn. Sev-Vost. Nauchn. Ts. Dal’nevost. Otd. Ross. Akad. Nauk, no. 4, 23–26 (2009).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. S. Biakov, Permian Zonal Stratigraphy, Event Correlation, and Paleobiogeography of Northeastern Asia: Evidence from Bivalve Mollusks (SVKNII DVO RAN, Magadan, 2010) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. S. Biakov, “New Species of Inoceramus-like Bivalves of the Genus Aphanaia Koninck from the Lower Permian of Northeast Asia,” Paleontol. J. 45(1), 5–12 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. S. Biakov, “Developmental Stages of Permian Bivalves of Northeast Asia,” Paleontol. J. 45(5), 494–500 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. S. Biakov, “Permian Biospheric Events in Northeast Asia,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 20(2), 199–210 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. S. Biakov, “New Representative Inoceramus-Like Bivalves of the Middle Permian Kolymia Licharew from Northeastern Asia,” Paleontol. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    V. G. Ganelin and N. I. Karavaeva, “Stratotype Section of the Permian Dzhigdalian, Omolonian, Gizhigian, and Khivachian Horizons of Northeastern USSR,” in Proceedings on Geology and Minerals of Northeastern USSR (Magadan, 1977), No. 23, pp. 23–28 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. G. Ganelin and G. V. Kotlyar, “Subdivision and General Characteristics of the Permian System of the USSR Territory. East European Subregion,” in Main Features of the Permian Stratigraphy of USSR (Nedra, Leningrad, 1984), pp. 16–20 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    V. G. Ganelin, “Taimyr-Kolyma Subregion,” in Main Features of the Permian Stratigraphy of USSR (Nedra, Leningrad, 1984), pp. 111–142 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. G. Ganelin, A. S. Biakov, and N. I. Karavaeva, “Some Questions of Stratigraphical Theory and Permian Stratigraphic Scale of Northeastern Asia,” in Ways of Refinement of Stratigraphic Schemes, Ed. by Yu. B. Gladenkov and K. I. Kuznetsova (GEOS, Moscow, 2001) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    V. G. Ganelin, A. S. Biakov, and N. I. Karavaeva, “Permian Regional Stratigraphic Scheme of Northeastern Russia,” in Geodynamics, Magmatism, and Metallogeny of the Northern Pacific Continental Margins: Proceedings of All-Russian Conference Devoted to 90th Anniversary of Academician N.A. Shilo, Magadan, Russia, 2003 (SVK-NII DVO RAN, Magadan, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 125–131 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    V. G. Ganelin, “New Carboniferous Regional Stratigraphic Scale of Northeastern Russia,” in Readings in Memory of Academician K.V. Simakov: Proceedings of All-Russian Conference, Magadan, Russia, 2007 (SVNTs DVO RAN, Magadan, 2007), pp. 52–53 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    V. P. Gorskii, I. A. Alekseeva, V. P. Vladimirovich, et al., “East European Province,” in Main Features of the Permian Stratigraphy of USSR (Nedra, Leningrad, 1984), pp. 29–75 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. K. Goryaev, R. V. Kutygin, I. V. Budnikov, et al., “Stratotipy Sections of the Dulgalakhian and Khal’pirian Horizons (Tatarian Stage) of the Western Verkhoyansk Region, in Permian System: Stratigraphy, Paleontology, Paleogeography, Geodynamics, and Mineral Resources: Proceedings of the International Conference Devoted to 170th Anniversary of the Discovery of the Permian System, Perm, Russia, 2011 (Permsk. Gos. Univ., Perm, 2011), pp. 83–88 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. V. Zhuravlev, “New Data on the Lower Kazanian Conodonts in the Type Sections,” in Proceedings of All-Russian Conference on “Stucture and Status of the East European Stratigraphic System, Improvement of the Stage Subdivision of the Upper Permian Section of the General Scale,” Kazan, Russia, 2004 (Kazansk. Gos. Univ., Kazan, 2004), pp. 25–26 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. S. Kashik, V. G. Ganelin, N. I. Karavaeva, et al., Permian Key Section of the Omolon Massif (Nauka, Leningrad, 1990) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. V. Kotlyar, “Correlation of Stratigraphic Scales of the Permian Sediments of the Biarmian, Thethyan, and Angara Regions,” in Main Features of the Permian Stratigraphy of USSR (Nedra, Leningrad, 1984), pp. 229–233 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. V. Kotlyar, Yu. D. Zakharov, L. I. Popeko, et al., “Timorites Beds in Eastern Asia,” Tikhookean. Geol. 16(3), 41–50 (1997).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. V. Kotlyar, A. P. Nikitina, A. V. Zhuravlev, and O. L. Kossovaya, “Midian (Wordian-Capitanian) Transient Fauna of Southeastern Asia,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 78(1), 33–48 (2003).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. V. Kotlyar, O. L. Kossovaya, and A. V. Zhuravlev, “Interregional Correlation of Main Permian Event Boundaries,” Tikhookean. Geol. 23(4), 25–42 (2004).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. V. Kotlyar, O. L. Kossovaya, S. B. Shishlov, et al., “Boundary between Permian Series in Diverse Sedimentary Facies of North European Russia: Constraints of Event Stratigraphy,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 12(5), 460–484 (2004).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    G. V. Kotlyar, S. B. Shishlov, A. V. Zhuravlev, and O. L. Kosovaya, “Kazanian Sections of the Nemda River Basin, Volga-Vyatka Region,” in Upper Paleozoic Russia: Stratigraphy and Paleogeography. Proceedings of All-Russian Conference, Kazan, Russia, 2007 (Kazanskii gos. un-t, Kazan, 2007), pp. 162–170 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. V. Kulikov, “Mollusks from Permian Deposits of USSR,” Biostratigraf. Sbornik, No. 3, 114–135 (1967).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. V. Kutygin, I. V. Budnikov, A. S. Biakov, and A. G. Klets, “Permian Ammonoid Beds of the Upper Verkhoyansk Region,” Otechestvennaya Geol., No. 4, 66–71 (2002).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. V. Kutygin, I. V. Budnikov, A. S. Biakov, et al., “Key Section of the Dulgalakhian and Khal’pirian Horizons of the Western Verkhoyansk Region,” Tikhookean. Geol. 22(6), 82–97 (2003).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. V. Kutygin, A. G. Klets, I. V. Budnikov, and A. S. Biakov, “Substantiation of the Ufimian and Kazanian Stages in the Verkhoyansk Region,” in Structure and Status of the East European Stratigraphic Scale of the Permian System, Improvement of the Upper Permian Stage Subdivision of the General Stratigraphic Scale: Reports of All-Russian Conference, Kazan, Russia, 2004 (Kazansk. Gos. Univ., Kazan, 2004), pp. 35–38 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. V. Kutygin, Stratigraphic Succession of the Permian Ammonoids of the Upper Verkhoyansk Region, in Upper Paleozoic of Russia: Stratigraphy and Paleogeography. Proceedings of All-Russian Conference, Kazan, Russia, 2007 (Kazansk. Gos. Univ., Kazan, 2007), pp. 177–179 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. V. Kutygin, I. V. Budnikov, A. S. Biakov, et al., “New Data on Stratigraphic Relations between the Lower Permian Jakutoproductus Brachiopods and Inoceramus-Like Bivalves in the Western Verkhoyansk Region,” Otechestvennaya Geol., No. 5, 97–104 (2010).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    E. Ya. Leven, M. F. Bogoslovskaya, V. G. Ganelin, et al., “Reorganization of Marine Biota during the Mid-Early Permian Epoch,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 4(1), 57–66 (1996).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    E. Ya. Leven, “Diversity Dynamics of Fusulinid Genera and Main Stages of Their Evolution,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 11(3), 220–230 (2003).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. Ya. Leven and M. F. Bogoslovskaya, “The Roadian Stage of the Permian and Problems of Its Global Correlation,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 14(2), 164–173 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    T. B. Leonova, “Stages in Evolution and Biogeography of Permian Ammonoids,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 7(6), 568–580 (1999).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    T. B. Leonova, N. K. Esaulova, and O. P. Shilovskii, “The First Ammonoid Find in the Volga-Urals Region,” Dokl. Earth Sci. 383A(4), 239–241 (2002).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. B. Leonova, “The Roadian Ammonoids in the Northern Regions of the Earth,” in Evolution of Biosphere and Biodiversity. Devoted to 70th Anniversary of A.Yu. Rozanov (Tov-vo nauch. izd. KMK, Moscow, 2006), pp. 540–551 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. K. Likharev, “Upper Carboniferous Pelecypods of the Urals and Timan,” Tr. Geol. Kom. Nov. Ser., No. 164, (1927).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    B. K. Likharev, “Permian Fauna of the Kolyma Region,” Tr. SOPS 14, (1934) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    O. V. Lobanova, “Lower Permian Pelecypods from the Popovka River, the Middle Reaches of the Kolyma River,” in Collection of Articles on Paleontology and Biostratigraphy (Leningrad, 1959), No. 17, pp. 60–84 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    O. V. Lobanova and E. M. Lyutkevich, “Description of Species. Bivalve Group,” in Field Atlas of the Permian Fauna and Flora of Northeastern USSR (Kn. izd-vo, Magadan, 1970), pp. 42–63 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    I. N. Manankov, “New Species of Early Permian Brachiopods and Biostratigraphy of the Boreal Basin of Mongolia,” Paleontol. J. 38(4), 366–372 (2004).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. A. Molostovskii, I. I. Molostovskaya, A. V. Minikh, and M. G. Minikh, “On Reconstruction of the Upper Permian General Stratigraphic Scheme,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved.., Geol. Razved., No. 1, 8–20 (2002).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    V. A. Muromtseva, Carboniferous Bivalve Mollusks of Kazakhstan and Siberia (Nedra, Leningrad, 1974) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    V. A. Muromtseva, “Bivalve Mollusks,” in Permian Deposits of Novaya Zemlya (Nauka, Leningrad, 1981), pp. 26–51 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    V. A. Muromtseva and V. A. Gus’kov, Permian Marine Deposits and Bivalve Mollusks of Soviet Arctic (Nedra, Leningrad, 1984) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. V. Naugol’nykh, “Ecological Catastrophe in the Permian Period?,” Priroda, No. 4, 64–66 (1992).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    R. E. Nel’zina, “Lower Permian Pectinacea from the Cis-Urals,” Vestn. Leningr. Univ., Ser. Geol. Geogr. 2(12), 57–71 (1958).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    T. M. Okuneva and Yu. D. Zakharov, “First Finds of the Permian Ammonoids in the Borzya River Basin, Transbaikal Region,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., No. 4, 142–144 (1992).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yu. N. Popov, “Some Permian Pelecypods, Gastropods, and Ammonites of the Verkhoyansk Region,” in Collection of Articles on Paleontology and Biostratigraphy (Leningrad, 1957), No. 1, pp. 45–60 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stratigraphic Code of Russia, 3rd Edition (VSEGEI, St. Petersburg, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    P. I. Suveizdis, “Bivalve Mollusks,” in Permian System of the Baltic Region (Mintis, Vilnus, 1975), Vol. 29, pp. 117–156 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    V. V. Chernykh, “Biochronological Scale and Zonal Stratigraphy,” Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya 3(3), 100–110 (1995).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    V. V. Chernykh, V. G. Khalymbadzha, and V. V. Silant’ev, “Representatives of the Genus Kamagnatus gen. nov. (Conodonts) from the Kazanian Sediments of the Volga Region,” Mater. Stratigr. Paleontol. Urala, No. 3, 74–82 (2001).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    V. V. Chernykh, “Problems of Perfecting Zonal Stratigraphic Scales,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 10(2), 114–124 (2002).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    V. V. Chernykh, “Global Conodont Correlation of the Artinskian and Kungurian Stages,” Litosfera, No. 1, 64–71 (2003).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    B. I. Chuvashov, “The Kungurian Stage of the Permian System: Problems of Recognition and Correlation,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 5(3), 212–230 (1997).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    B. I. Chuvashov, V. V. Chernykh, M. F. Bogoslovskaya, and G. A. Mizens, “Biostratigraphy of the Boundary Artinskian-Kungurian Sediments of the Western and Cis-Urals,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on the “Upper Permian Stratotypes of the Volga Region,” Moscow, Russia, 1999 (GEOS, Moscow, 1999), pp. 336–338 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    B. I. Chuvashov, V. V. Chernykh, and M. F. Bogoslovskaya, “Biostratigraphic Characteristic of Stage Stratotypes of the Permian System,” Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 10(4), 317–333 (2002).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. S. Biakov, “Permian Bivalve Mollusks of Northeast Asia,” J. Asian Earth Sci. 26(3–4), 235–242 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. W. Ciriacks, “Permian and Eotriassic Bivalves of the Middle Rockies,” Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. History 125(1), (1963).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. M. Dickins, “Permian Pelecypods and Gastropods from Western Australia,” Bull. Bur. Miner. Resourse. Geol. Geophys. Australia, No. 63, (1963).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Z.-J. Fang, “Bivalves from Upper Part of Permian in Southern Hunan, China,” Coll. Postgrad. Thes., No. 1, 349–471 (1987).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    V. G. Ganelin and A. S. Biakov, “The Permian Biostratigraphy of the Kolyma-Omolon Region, Northeast Asia,” J. Asian Earth Sci. 26(3–4), 225–234 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    G. H. Girthy, “Fauna of the Phosphate Beds of the Park City Formation in Idaho, Wyoming and Utah,” U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 436 (1910).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    “International Permian Time Scale,” Permophiles 55, (2010).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    C. F. Laseron, “Palaeontology of the Lower Schoalhaven River,” J. R. Soc. New South Wales 44, 190–225 (1910).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Logan, “Permian Bivalvia of Northern England,” Palaeontograph. Soc. 121(518), 72 (1967).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    M. Menning, “A Permian Time Scale 2000 and Correlation of Marine and Continental Sequences Using the Illawarra Reversal (265 Ma),” Natura Bresciana. Ann. Mus. Civ. Sc. Nat., Brescia. Mon. 25, 355–362 (2001).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    J. Morris, “Description of Fossils,” in Physical Descriptions of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land (London, 1845), pp. 270–291.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    W. W. Nassichuk, “Permian Ammonoids from Devon Melville Islands, Canadian Arctic Archipelago,” J. Palaeontology 44(1), 77–97 (1970).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    N. D. Newell, “Late Paleozoic Pelecypods: Pectinacea,” State Geol. Surv. Kansas 10, (1938).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    J. Pattison, “A Review of the Marine Fossils from the Upper Permian Rocks of Northern Ireland and North-West England,” Bull. Geol. Surv. Great Britain, No. 32, 123–165 (1970).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    G. Racki and P. B. Wignall, “Late Permian Double-Phased Mass Extinction and Volcanism: an Oceanographic Perspective,” in Understanding Late Devonian and Permian-Triassic Biotic and Climatic Events: Towards an Integrated Approach, Ed. by D. J. Over, J. R. Morrow, and P. B. Wignall (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 263–297.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    G. J. Retallack, C. A. Metzger, T. Greaver, et al., “Middle-Late Permian Mass Extinction on Land,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 118(11/12), 1398–1411 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    S. Shen and G. R. Shi, “Paleobiogeographical Extinction Patterns of Permian Brachiopods in the Asian-Western Pacific Region,” Paleobiology 28(4), 449–463 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. N. Tong, G. R. Shi, and D. H. Erwin, “Foraminifer Extinction and Recovery during the Permian and Triassic Transition,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pangea and the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Transition (China Univ. Geos. Press, Beijing, 1999).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Y. D. Zakharov, A. S. Biakov, A. Baud, and H. Kozur, “Significance of Caucasian Sections for Working out Carbon-Isotope Standard for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Indian) and Their Correlation with the Permian of North-Eastern Russia,” J. China Univ. Geosc. 16(2), 141–151 (2005).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeast Complex Research Institute, Far East BranchRussian Academy of SciencesMagadanRussia

Personalised recommendations