Neurochemical Journal

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 56–61 | Cite as

The protective role of a hypothalamic proline-rich peptide during acute intoxication of rats by carbon dioxide in combination with oxygen starvation

  • R. M. Simonyan
  • L. H. Melconyan
  • M. A. Babayan
  • G. M. Simonyan
  • L. N. Arakelyan
  • M. A. Simonyan
  • A. A. Galoyan
Experimental Articles


We measured the contents of NADPH oxidases (Nox) in the membranes of erythrocytes, spleen cells, bone marrow cells, nuclei from spleen cells, and blood serum of rats that were subjected to action of carbon dioxide under conditions of oxygen starvation. We found that some increase in Nox content during intoxication with CO2 correlates with an increase in the superoxide-producing activity of Nox. Intraperitoneal administration of the synthetic analogue of the proline-rich peptide, which was previously extracted from neurosecretory granules of the hypothalamus and is referred to as galarmin, 1 hour before the treatment with CO2 resulted in a further increase in the content and superoxide-producing activity of Nox. The methemoglobin-reducing activity of Nox, which was decreased due to CO2 intoxication, increased in the presence of galarmin. We also found that considerable changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the cytosol of erythrocytes and the cells of rat spleen, which were induced by CO2, were reverted by galarmin, which returned these activities almost to their norm. The data we obtained suggest that galarmin may have a protective effect during CO2 intoxication under conditions of oxygen starvation.


carbon dioxide oxygen starvation intoxication NADPH oxidase (Nox) metalloproteins proline-rich eptide galarmin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Yamazaki, M., Islam, M.N., Ogura, Y., Honda, K., Tsuchihashi, H., and Nidhioka, H., Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi, 1997, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 446–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gibbons, H.L., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1997, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 261–263.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ostapenko Ju.N., Litvinov, N.N., Rozhkov, P.G., Iliashenko, K.K., and Goldfarb, Iu.S., Anesteziol. Reanimatol., 2008, vol. 6, pp. 11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Craige, S.M., Chen, K., Pei, Y., Li, C., and Huang, X., Circulation, 2011, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 731–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basili, S., Pignatelli, P., Tanzilli, G., and Mangieri, E., Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2011, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1766–1771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tawa, M., Yamamizu, K., Geddawy, A., Shimosato, T., Imamura, T., Ayajiki, K., and Okamura, T., J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2011, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 188–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Joppa, P., Petra’Sova’ D., Stanca’K B., Dorkova’ Z., Tka’Cova’ R, Wien Klin. Wochenschr., 2007, vol. 119, nos 13–14, pp. 428–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sare, M., Yilmaz, L., Hamamci, D., Birincioglu, M., Ozmen, M., and Yesilada, O., Surg. Endosc., 2000, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 649–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Devi, S.A., Vani, R., Subramanyam, M.V., Reddy, S.S., and Jeevaratnam, K., Cell. Biochem. Funct., 2007, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 221–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ding, W. and Liu, Y., Oral Dis., 2011, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 677–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eskobar, J.A., Rubio, M.A., and Lissi, E.A., Free Radical Biol. Med., 1996, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simonyan, G.M., Grigoryan, G.G., Simonyan, R.M., and Simonyan, M.A., Aktual’nye voprosy voennoi meditsiny (Actual Problems of Military Medicine), Yerevan: ErMGu im. M. Geratsi, 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Potapovich, M.V., Eremin, A.N., and Metelitsa, D.I., Prikl. Biokhim. Mikrobiol., 2003, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 160–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tavadyan, L.A., Galoyan, K.A., Harutunyan, L.A., Tonikyan, H.G., and Galoyan, A.A., Neurochem. Res., 2010, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 947–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simonyan, G.M., Simonyan, R.M., Simonyan, M.A., and Galoyan, A.A., Neurochem. Res., 2008, no. 33, pp. 1155–1156.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Galoyan, A.A., Biochemistry of Novel Cardioactive Hormones and Immunomodulators of the Functional System Neurosecretory Hypothalamus-Endocrine Heart, Moscow: Nauka, 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simonyan, G.M., Simonyan, R.M., and Simonyan, M.A., J. Natural Sci. NAS RA, 2006, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 3–6.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simonyan, G.M., Simonyan, R.M., and Simonyan, M.A., RF Patent No. 2233 (2008).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Simonyan, M.A., Simonyan, G.M., and Simonyan, R.M., RF Patent No. 341 (1997).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Simonyan, G.M., Simonyan, R.M., and Simonyan, M.A., RF Patent No. 908 (2001).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simonyan, G.M., Aghamyan, G.R., Simonyan, R.M., and Simonyan, M.A., Electronic J. Natural Sci. NAS RA, 2007, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 3–5.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Simonyan, G.M., Med. Nauka Armenii, 2002, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 101–103.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simonyan, G.M., Simonyan, R.M., Agamyan, G.R., Simonyan, M.A., and Galoyan, A.A., Voprosy Teoret. Klin. Med., 2006, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 26–30.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sirakanyan, M.S., Simonyan, G.M., Babayan, M.A., and Simonyan, M.A., Vestnik MANEB Sankt Peterburga, 2006, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 192–197.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Simonyan, G.M., Seropyan, N.A., and Simonyan, M.A., Dokl. Nats. Akad. Nauk RA, 2001, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 183–186.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Melkonyan, L.G., Aleksanyan, A.S., Simonyan, R.M., Simonyan, G.M., Babayan, M.A., Sekoyan, E.S., and Simonyan, M.A., Meditsina, nauka i obrazovanie Gos. med. un-ta im. M. Geratsi, 2011, no. 9, pp. 8–12.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Della, R.F., Granata, A., and Braccio, M., Anticancer Res., 1995, vol. 15, pp. 2089–2096.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Simonyan
    • 1
  • L. H. Melconyan
    • 2
  • M. A. Babayan
    • 1
    • 3
  • G. M. Simonyan
    • 1
  • L. N. Arakelyan
    • 1
  • M. A. Simonyan
    • 1
  • A. A. Galoyan
    • 1
  1. 1.Buniatyn Institute of BiochemistryNational Academy of SciencesYerevanArmenia
  2. 2.Nalbandyan Pedagogical InstituteGyumriArmenia
  3. 3.YerevanArmenia

Personalised recommendations