Neurochemical Journal

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 113–126 | Cite as

Signal functions of NCAM

  • V. P. Chekhonin
  • I. I. Shepeleva
  • O. I. Gurina
Review Articles

Abstract

The neuronal protein of cell adhesion belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins. It consists of an extracellular domain providing homo-and heterophilic interactions with surrounding molecules that are located on the cell surface or are components of the extracellular matrix, a transmembrane part, and intracellular domains (NCAM140 and NCAM180). In addition to its role in cell adhesion, NCAMs act as a signal receptor molecule. Adhesion and initiation of signal cascades induced by binding to the NCAM extracellular domains occur interdependently but influence each other. The homo-and heterophilic binding of NCAM can activate a number of intracellular signal cascades resulting in neurite growth, axone guidance, axone myelinization, and formation of nerve fibers. It has been established that the intracellular signal is initiated by the interactions between NCAMs and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Fyn and FAK), glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), ATP, prion proteins, and several other molecules. The review discusses possible mechanisms of functioning of these signal cascades.

Key words

NCAM neuron mechanisms of adhesion structure functions signal receptors FGFR Fyn FAK MAPK 

Abbreviations

AA

arachidonic acid

2AG

arachidonoyl glycerol

CaMKII

calmodulin kinase II

c-fos

guanine nucleotide translation factor

CREB

cAMP-responsive element-binding protein

GDNF

glia-derived neurotrophic factor

DAG

diacylglycerol

DAGL

diacylglycerol lipase

Erk

extracellular signal regulated kinases

FAK

non-receptor focal adhesion tyrosine kinase

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

FGFR

fibroblast growth factor receptor

Fn

fibronectin

Fyn

non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn

GAP43

growth-associated protein

GPI

glucosyl phosphatidyl inositol

Ig

immunoglobulin

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEK

kinase of mitogen-activated protein kinase

IP3

inositol triphosphate

NCAM

neuronal cell adhesion molecule

NGF

nerve growth factor

PK

protein kinase

PLC

phospholipase C

PLCγ

phospholipase Cγ

PrP

prion protein

PSA

polysialic acid

RPTP

receptor-protein tyrosine phosphatase

Trk

tropomyosin kinase family

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Chekhonin
    • 1
  • I. I. Shepeleva
    • 1
  • O. I. Gurina
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of ImmunochemistrySerbsky National Research Center for Social and Forensic PsychiatryMoscowRussia

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