Polymer Science Series C

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 332–354 | Cite as

Synthesis, properties, and practical application of hyperbranched polymers

Article

Abstract

The methods of synthesis of hyperbranched polymers are considered and systematized with main attention focused on such modern and promising procedures of crosslinking free-radical polymerization as living chain and intense chain transfer regimes. The synthetic approach to hyperbranched polymers via free-radical oxidative polymerization is the first to be put forth. The main problems concerning these polymers are formulated, and the recent advances in this field are generalized and elucidated.

Keywords

Macromolecule Polymer Science Series Topological Structure Hyperbranched Polymer Nanostructured Polymer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. J. Flory, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 2718 (1952).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Aulenta, W. Hayes, and S. Rannard, Eur. Polym. J. 39, 1741 (2003).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. N. Bochkarev and M. A. Katkova, Usp. Khim. 64, 1106 (1995).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu. D. Semchikov, Sorosovskii Obrazovatel’nyi Zh., No. 12, 45 (1998).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Gao and D. Yan, Prog. Polym. Sci. 29, 183 (2004).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. V. Korolev and A. P. Marchenko, Usp. Khim. 69, 447 (2000).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. R. Smirnov, A. P. Marchenko, G. V. Korolev, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 41, (1999) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 41, 1974 (1999)].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Sato, Y. Arima, M. Seno, and T. Hirano, Macromolecules 38, 1627 (2005).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. D. Campbell, F. Teymour, and M. Morbidelli, Macromolecules 38, 752 (2005).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. V. Korolev, T. F. Irzhak, and V. I. Irzhak, Khim. Fiz. 21, 58 (2002).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Properties and Applications of Boltorn, Dendritic Polymers, Ed. by B. Pettersson (Perstorp Speciality Chemicals AB, 2001).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. A. Razuvaev, L. S. Boguslavskaya, and R. A. Barabashina, Zh. Org. Khim. 8, 1601 (1972).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. N. Bochkarev, V. B. Silkin, L. P. Maiorova, et al., Metalloorg. Khim. 1, 196 (1988).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. N. Bochkarev, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Sect. A 55, 170 (1989).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. N. Bochkarev, Yu. D. Semchikov, V. B. Silkin, et al., Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. B 31, 643 (1989).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yu. D. Semchikov, S. D. Zaitsev, M. A. Katkova, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 43, 900 (2001) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 43, 1464 (2001)].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O. G. Zakharova, S. D. Zaitsev, Yu. D. Semchikov, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 47, 901 (2005) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 47, 1573 (2005)].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. N. Bochkarev, I. I. Brezhneva, M. A. Katkova, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 44, 89 (2002) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 44, 104 (2002)].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. V. Lebedev, N. N. Smirnova, L. Ya. Tsvetkova, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 46, 526 (2004) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 46, 849 (2004)].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. D. Zaitsev, A. A. Turshatov, G. M. Pavlov, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. B 46, 241 (2004) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. B 46, 1443 (2004)].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. I. Pestova, E. N. Khanov, T. I. Kulikova, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. B 46, 237 (2004) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. B 46, 1438 (2004)].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. M. Muzafarov, E. A. Rebrov, and V. S. Papkov, Usp. Khim. 60, 1596 (1991).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    V. V. Kazakova, V. D. Myakushev, T. V. Strelkova, and A. M. Muzafarov, Polymer Science, Ser. A 41, 283 (1999) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 41, 423 (1999)].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. V. Ryabkov, T. A. Bykova, B. V. Lebedev, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 42, 1012 (2000) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 42, 1531 (2000)].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Drohmann, M. Möller, O. B. Gorbatsevich, and A. M. Muzafarov, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 38, 741 (2000).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. N. Ozerin, A. M. Muzafarov, V. I. Gordeliy, et al., Macromol. Symp. 195, 171 (2003).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. V. Bystrova, E. A. Tatarinova, M. I. Buzin, and A. M. Muzafarov, Polymer Science, Ser. A 47, 820 (2005) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 47, 1452 (2005)].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. B. Tarabukina, A. A. Shpyrkoy, D. V. Potapova, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 47, 1304 (2005) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 47, 2157 (2005)].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. V. Buzin, M. Yu. Yablokova, A. A. Kuznetsov, et al., in Structure and Dynamics of Molecular Systems (Mariisk. Gos. Univ., Ioshkar-Ola, 2003), No. X, Part 1, p. 24.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. A. Kuznetsov, P. V. Buzin, and M. Yu. Yablokov, in Structure and Dynamics of Molecular Systems (Marisk. Gos. Univ., Ioshkar-Ola, 2004), No. XI, Part 1, p. 46.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Kuznetsov, A. Tsegelskaya, V. Kaminsky, et al., CD-ROM, Extended Abstracts of European Polymer Congress, Moscow, 2005, P1.2-28, Ref. 6134.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Kuznetsov, A. Tsegelskaya, and V. Kaminsky, CDROM, Extended Abstracts of European Polymer Congress, Moscow, 2005, P7.4-15, Ref. 6125.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Yu. Bilibin, G. G. Egorova, N. V. Girbasova, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 46, 89 (2004) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 46, 197 (2004)].Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    N. V. Girbasova, I. I. Migunova, I. R. Raspopova, and A. Yu. Bilibin, Polymer Science, Ser. A 45, 320 (2003) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 45, 550 (2003)].Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. V. Korolev, T. F. Irzhak, and V. I. Irzhak, Polymer Science, Ser. A 44, 1 (2002) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 44, 5 (2002)].Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. V. Korolev, T. F. Irzhak, and V. I. Irzhak, Polymer Science, Ser. A 43, 594 (2001) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 43, 970 (2001)].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. V. Korolev, V. I. Irzhak, and T. F. Irzhak, Polymer Science, Ser. A 43, 1236 (2001) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 43, 2106 (2001)].Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. V. Korolev, T. F. Irzhak, and V. I. Irzhak, Macromol. Symp. 171, 11 (2001).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V. I. Irzhak, Usp. Khim. 73, 275 (2004).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. A. Krykin, A. M. Vasserman, M. V. Motyakin, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 44, 836 (2002) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 44, 1325 (2002)].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. A. Fadeev, A. V. Rebrov, L. A. Ozerina, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 41, 189 (1999) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 41, 290 (1999)].Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    V. I. Selikhova, V. M. Neverov, E. A. Sinevich, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 47, 103 (2005) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 47, 228 (2005)].Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. P. Vlasov, I. I. Tarasenko, S. V. Valueva, et al., Polymer Science, Ser. A 47, 422 (2005) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 47, 731 (2005)].Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. V. Lyulin, A. V. Lyulin, and A. A. Darinskii, Polymer Science, Ser. A 46, 189 (2004) [Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 46, 321 (2004)].Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Y. H. Kim and O. W. Webster, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 29, 310 (1988).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Y. H. Kim and O. W. Webster, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 4592 (1990).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Y. H. Kim and O. W. Webster, Macromolecules 25, 5561 (1992).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Y. H. Kim and R. Beckerbauer, Macromolecules 27, 1968 (1994).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    K. E. Uhrich, C. Hawker, J. M. J. Frechet, and S. R. Turner, Macromolecules 25, 4583 (1992).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    T. M. Miller, T. X. Neenan, E. W. Kwock, and S. M. Stein, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 356 (1993).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    V. Percec and M. Kawasumi, Macromolecules 25, 3843 (1992).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    V. Percec, P. Chu, and M. Kawasumi, Macromolecules 27, 4441 (1994).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. J. Hawker, R. Lee, and J. M. J. Fréchet, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 4583 (1991).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    P. Kambouris and C. J. Hawker, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, 2717 (1993).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. L. Wooley, C. J. Hawker, R. Lee, and J. M. J. Frechet, Polym. J. (Tokyo) 26, 187 (1994).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    K. L. Wooley, J. M. J. Frechet, and C. J. Hawker, Polymer 35, 4489 (1994).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. R. Turner, B. Voit, and F. Walter, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 68, 57 (1993).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    S. R. Turner, B. Voit, and T. H. Mourey, Macromolecules 26, 4617 (1993).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. R. Turner and B. Voit, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 34, 79 (1993).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. R. Turner, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 74, 437 (1996).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    S. R. Turner and B. Voit, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 33, 184 (1992).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    S. R. Turner, F. Walter, B. Voit, and T. H. Mourey, Macromolecules 27, 1611 (1994).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. Malmström, M. Johansson, and A. Hult, Polym. News 22, 128 (1997).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Johansson, E. Malmström, and A. Hult, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 31, 619 (1993).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    H. Andersson, U. W. Gedde, and A. Hult, Macromolecules 29, 1649 (1996).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    E. Malmström, F. Liu, R. Boyd, et al., Polym. Bull. (Berlin) 32, 679 (1994).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    E. Malmström, M. Johansson, and A. Hult, Macromolecules 28, 1698 (1995).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    E. Malmström and A. Hult, Macromolecules 29, 1222 (1996).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    E. Malmström and A. Hult, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 73, 349 (1995).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    H. Magnusson, E. Malmström, and A. Hult, Macromolecules 33, 3099 (2000).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    M. Trolsas, J. Hedrick, O. Mecerreyes, et al., J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 36, 3187 (1998).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    H. R. Kricheldorf, O. Stoeber, and D. Luebbers, Macromolecules 28, 2118 (1995).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    H. R. Kricheldorf, G. Loehden, and O. Stoeber, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 36, 749 (1995).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    H. R. Kricheldorf and T. Stukenbrock, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 36, 2347 (1998).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Trollsas and J. L. Hedrick, Macromolecules 31, 4390 (1998).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    K. E. Uhrich, S. Boegeman, J. M. J. Fréchet, and S. R. Turner, Polym. Bull. (Berlin) 25, 551 (1991).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. R. Kricheldorf and O. Bolender, J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. 35, 903 (1998).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Y. H. Kim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 4947 (1992).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. Yang, M. Jikei, and M. Kakimoto, Macromolecules 32, 2215 (1999).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    G. Yang, M. Jikei, and M. Kakimoto, Macromolecules 31, 5964 (1998).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Y. Ishida, A. C. F. Sun, M. Jikei, and M. Kakimoto, Macromolecules 33, 2832 (2000).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. J. Hobson, A. M. Kenwright, and W. J. Feast, Chem. Commun., No. 19, 1877 (1997).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    L. J. Hobson and W. J. Feast, Polymer 40, 1279 (1999).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. H. Bolton and K. L. Wooley, Macromolecules 30, 1890 (1997).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    C. J. Hawker and F. Chu, Macromolecules 29, 4370 (1996).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Morikawa, Macromolecules 31, 5999 (1998).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    C. F. Shu, C. M. Leu, and F. Y. Huang, Polymer 40, 6591 (1999).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    C. F. Shu and C. M. Leu, Macromolecules 32, 100 (1999).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    R. Spindler and J. M. J. Fréchet, Macromolecules 26, 4809 (1993).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    A. Kumar and S. A. Ramakrishnan, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., No. 18, 1453 (1993).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Kumar and S. A. Ramakrishnan, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 34, 839 (1996).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    R. M. Versteegen, R. P. Sijbesma, and E. W. Meijer, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 40, 839 (1999).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    J. Karger-Kocsis, J. Frohlich, O. Gryshchuk, et al., Polymer 45, 1185 (2004).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    O. Gryshchuk, N. Jost, and J. Karger-Kocsis, Polymer 43, 4763 (2002).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    T. M. Londergan, Y. You, M. E. Thompson, and W. P. Weber, Macromolecules 31, 2784 (1998).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    P. Lu, J. K. Paulasaari, and W. P. Weber, Macromolecules 29, 8583 (1996).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    L. J. Mathias and T. W. Carothers, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 4043 (1991).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    A. Muzafarov, M. Golly, and M. Möller, Macromolecules 28, 8444 (1995).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    K. Yoon and D. Y. Son, Macromolecules 32, 5210 (1999).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    C. Lach and H. Frey, Macromolecules 31, 2381 (1998).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    C. Gao and D. Y. Yan, Chem. Commun., No. 1, 107 (2001).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    C. Gao, Y. M. Xu, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Yan, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 44, 845 (2003).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    C. Gao, Y. M. Xu, D. Y. Yan, and W. Chen, Biomacromolecules 4, 704 (2003).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    C. Gao and D. Yan, Macromolecules 36, 613 (2003).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    D. Yan and C. Gao, Macromolecules 33, 7693 (2000).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    D. Y. Yan, C. Gao, W. Tang, et al., in Proceedings of CCS Congress, China, 2000, p. 573.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    C. Gao and D. Y. Yan, Chem. World (Suppl.) 42, 229 (2001).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    C. Gao, D. Y. Yan, X. Y. Zhu, and W. Huang, Polymer 42, 7603 (2001).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    C. Gao, D. Y. Yan, and W. Tang, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 2623 (2001).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    C. Gao and D. Y. Yan, Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao 23, 2202 (2002).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    China Patent No. 02,111,579.6 (2002).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    H. G. Kou and W. F. Shi, Gaofenzi Xuebao, No. 5554 (2000).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    China Patent No. 02,111,578.8 (2002).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    D. M. Muscat, H. Henderickx, G. Kwakkenbos, et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 11, 218 (2000).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    China Patent No. 02,145,100.1 (2002).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    C. Gao, W. Tang, and D. Y. Yan, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 40, 2340 (2002).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    China Patent No. 02,145,097.8 (2002).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    K. C. Wang, C. Gao, W. Huang, and D. Y. Yan, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 44, 583 (2003).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    S. Koster, C. G. De Koster, R. A. T. M. van Benthem, et al., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 210, 591 (2001).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    K. C. Wang, C. Gao, W. Huang, and D. Y. Yan, Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 44, 888 (2003).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    C. Gao and D. Y. Yan, Macromolecules 34, 156 (2001).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    C. Gao, W. Tang, D. Y. Yan, et al., Polymer 42, 3437 (2001).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    C. Gao, D. Y. Yan, and W. Tang, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 202, 3035 (2001).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    C. Gao, W. Tang, D. Y. Yan, et al., Sci. China 44, 207 (2001).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    P. J. Flory, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63, 3091 (1941).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    P. J. Flory, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63, 3096 (1941).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    C. Walling, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 67, 441 (1945).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    P. J. Flory, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 30 (1947).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    M. Jikei, S. H. Chon, M. Kakimoto, et al., Macromolecules 32, 2061 (1999).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    T. Emrick, H. T. Chang, and J. M. J. Fréchet, Macromolecules 32, 6380 (1999).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    T. Emrick, H. T. Chang, and J. M. J. Fréchet, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 38, 4850 (2000).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    L. M. Dai, B. Winkler, L. M. Dong, et al., Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Fed. Repub. Ger.) 13, 915 (2001).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    L. Dai, S. Huang, J. Lu, et al., Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem.) 39, 171 (1998).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    T. Lin, Q. He, F. Bai, and L. Dai, Thin Solid Films 363, 122 (2000).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    S. Tanaka, K. Takeuchi, M. Asai, et al., Synth. Met. 119, 139 (2001).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    J. H. Fang, H. Kita, and K. Okamoto, Macromolecules 33, 4639 (2000).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    H. Chen and J. Yin, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 40, 3804 (2002).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    J. Hao, M. Jikei, and M. Kakimoto, Macromolecules 35, 5372 (2002).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    P. E. Froehling, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 42, 3110 (2004).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    D. Muscat and R. A. T. M. van Benthem, Top. Curr. Chem. 212, 41 (2001).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    E. T. Denisov and T. G. Denisova, in Hahdbook of Free-Radical Initiators (Wiley, New Jersey, 2003).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    G. C. Behera and S. Ramakrishnan, Macromolecules 37, 9814 (2004).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    T. Sato, N. Sato, M. Seno, and T. Hirano, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 41, 3038 (2003).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    T. Sato, M. Hashimoto, M. Seno, and T. Hirano, Eur. Polym. J. 40, 273 (2004).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    T. Sato, N. Higashida, T. Hirano, and M. Seno, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 42, 1609 (2004).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    T. Sato, Y. Arima, M. Seno, and T. Hirano, Polym. Int. 53, 1138 (2004).Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    T. Sato, H. Ihara, T. Hirano, and M. Seno, Polymer 45, 7491 (2004).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    T. Sato, T. Miyagi, T. Hirano, and M. Seno, Polym. Int. 53, 1503 (2004).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    N. O’Brien, A. McKee, D. C. Sherrington, et al., Polymer 41, 6027 (2000).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    P. A. Costello, I. K. Martin, A. T. Slark, et al., Polymer 43, 245 (2002).Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    A. T. Slark, D. C. Sherrington, A. Titterton, and I. K. Martin, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2711 (2003).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    F. Isaure, P. A. G. Cormack, and D. C. Sherrington, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2701 (2003).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    F. Isaure, P. A. G. Cormack, and D. C. Sherrington, Macromolecules 37, 2096 (2004).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    B. R. Smirnov, A. P. Marchenko, G. V. Korolev, et al., Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 23, 1042 (1981).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    B. R. Smirnov, in Porphyrins: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, Application, Ed. by N. S. Enikolopyan (Nauka, Moscow, 1987), p. 290.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    A. Gridnev and S. Ittel, Chem. Rev. 101, 3611 (2001).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    R. Baudry and D. C. Sherrington, Macromolecules 39, 1455 (2006).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    A. Hui and A. E. Hamielec, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 22, 749 (1972).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    A. Hussain and A. E. Hamielec, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 22, 1207 (1972).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    A. E. Hamielec, J. F. MacGregor, S. Webb, and T. Spychaj, in Polymer Reaction Engineering, Ed. by K. H. Reichert and W. Geisler (Hüthig and Wepf, New York, 1986), p. 185.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    T. Spychaj and A. E. Hamielec, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 2111 (1991).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    J. D. Campbell, F. Teymour, and M. Morbidelli, Macromolecules 38, 752 (2005).Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    J. D. Campbell, J. A. Allaway, F. Teymour, and M. Morbidelli, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 94, 890 (2004).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. P. Fisher and W. Luders, Makromol. Chem. 155, 239 (1972).Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    G. F. Meijs, E. Rizzardo, and S. H. Thang, Macromolecules 21, 3122 (1988).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    G. F. Meijs and E. Rizzardo, Makromol. Chem. 191, 1545 (1990).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    G. F. Meijs, T. C. Morton, E. Rizzardo, and S. H. Thang, Macromolecules 24, 3689 (1991).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    J. D. Campbell and F. Teymour, US Patent No. 5986020 (1999).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    J. D. Campbell and F. Teymour, US Patent No. 6265511 (2001).Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Z. Guan, US Patent No. 576711 (1998).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    C. J. Hawker, J. M. J. Fréchet, R. B. Grubbs, and J. Dao, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 10763 (1995).Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    M. W. Weimer, J. M. J. Fréchet, and I. Gitsov, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 36, 955 (1998).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    S. G. Gaynor, S. Edelman, and K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 29, 1079 (1996).Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    B. Voit, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 38, 2505 (2000).Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    K. Matyjaszewski, S. G. Gaynor, and A. H. E. Müller, Macromolecules 30, 7034 (1997).Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    G. Cheng, P. F. W. Simon, M. Hartenstein, and A. H. E. Müller, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 21, 846 (2000).Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    K. Matyjaszewski, S. G. Gaynor, A. Kulfan, and M. Podwika, Macromolecules 30, 5192 (1997).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    S. H. Yoo, T. H. Yooh, and J. Y. Jho, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 22, 1319 (2001).Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    S. H. Yoo, J. H. Lee, J.-C. Lee, and J. Y. Jho, Macromolecules 35, 1146 (2002).Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    J. Bibiao, Y. Yang, J. Xiang, et al., Eur. Polym. J. 37, 1975 (2001).Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    J. Bibiao, Y. Yang, D. Jian, et al., J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 83, 2114 (2002).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    C. Y. Hong and C. Y. Pan, Polymer 42, 9385 (2001).Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    K. Matyjaszewski and S. G. Gaynor, Macromolecules 30, 7042 (1997).Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    K. Matyjaszewski, J. Pyun, and S. G. Gaynor, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 19, 665 (1998).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    C. H. Hong, C. Y. Pan, Y. Huang, and Z. D. Xu, Polymer 42, 6733 (2001).Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    T. Otsu, M. Yoshida, and A. Kuriyama, Polym. Bull. (Berlin) 7, 45 (1982).Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    T. Otsu, A. Kuriyama, and M. Yoshida, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 40, 583 (1983).Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    T. Otsu and A. Kuriyama, Polym. Bull. (Berlin) 11, 135 (1984).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    T. Otsu and A. Matsumoto, Adv. Polym. Sci. 136, 75 (1998).Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    T. Otsu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 38, 2121 (2000).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    K. Ishizu, K. Tsubaki, A. Mori, and S. Ushida, Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 27 (2003).Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    K. Ishizu and Y. Ohta, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22, 647 (2003).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    K. Ishizu, T. Kojima, Y. Ohta, and T. Shibuya, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 272, 76 (2004).Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    K. Ishizu, T. Shibuya, J. Park, and S. Uchida, Polym. Int. 53, 259 (2004).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    K. Ishizu, T. Shibuya, and S. Kawauchi, Macromolecules 36, 3505 (2003).Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    K. Ishizu, J. Park, Y. Ohta, and T. Shibuya, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 89, 2490 (2003).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    K. Ishizu, C. Takashimizu, T. Shibuya, and S. Uchida, Polym. Int. 52, 1010 (2003).Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    K. Ishizu, R. A. Khan, Y. Ohta, and M. Furo, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 42, 76 (2004).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    K. Ishizu, A. Mori, and T. Shibuya, Polymer 42, 7911 (2001).Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    K. Ishizu, A. Mori, and T. Shibuya, Des. Monom. Polym. 5, 1 (2002).Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    K. Ishizu and A. Mori, Polym. Int. 50, 906 (2001).Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    K. Ishizu and A. Mori, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 21, 665 (2000).Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    K. Ishizu, Y. Ohta, and S. Kawauchi, Macromolecules 35, 3781 (2002).Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    K. Ishizu, T. Shibuya, and A. Mori, Polym. Int. 51, 424 (2002).Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    M. M. Mogilevich and E. M. Pliss, Oxidation and Oxidative Polymerization of Unsaturated Compounds (Khimiya, Moscow, 1990) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    N. A. Sukhanova, Candidate’s Dissertation in Chemistry (Ivanovo, 1971).Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    M. M. Mogilevich, N. A. Sukhanova, O. P. Yablonskii, and G. V. Korolev, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Khim. Khim. Tekhnol. 16(12), 1898 (1973).Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    M. M. Mogilevich, N. A. Sukhanova, and G. V. Korolev, Vysokomol. Soedin., Ser. A 15, 1478 (1973).Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    M. M. Mogilevich, Oxidative Polymerization in Film Formation Processes (Khimiya, Leningrad, 1977) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    C. H. Bamford, W. G. Barb, A. D. Jenkins, and P. F. Onyon, The Kinetics of Vinyl Polymerization by Radical Mechanisms (Butterworths, London, 1958; Inostrannaya Literatura, Moscow, 1961).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Ch. Walling, Free Radicals in Solution (Wiley, New York, 1957; Inostrannaya Literatura, Moscow, 1971).Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kh. S. Bagdasar’yan, The Theory of Radical Polymerization (Nauka, Moscow, 1966) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    E. T. Denisov, Rate Constants of Homolytic Liquid-Phase Reactions (Nauka, Moscow, 1971) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    D. Ratna, R. Varley, R. K. Singh Raman, and G. P. Simon, J. Mater. Sci. 38, 147 (2003).Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    D. Ratna and G. P. Simon, Polymer 42, 8833 (2001).Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    G. Xu, W. F. Shi, M. Gong, et al., Eur. Polym. J. 40, 483 (2004).Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    D. Muscat and R. A. T. M. van Benthem, Top. Curr. Chem. 212, 41 (2001).Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    G. Jannerfeldt, R. Tornqvist, N. Rambert, et al., Appl. Compos. Mater. 8, 327 (2001).Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    D. E. Bergbreiter, D. Boren, and A. M. Kippenberger, Macromolecules 37, 8686 (2004).Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Z. W. Fu, L. M. Tang, B. H. Guo, and D. S. Liu, Gaofenzi Xuebao, No. 5, 754 (2003).Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    N. Xu, J. H. Zou, W. F. Shi, et al., Polym. Adv. Technol. 16, 378 (2005).Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    L. M. Tang, T. Qiu, X. L. Tuo, et al., Polym. J. (Tokyo) 34, 112 (2002).Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    X. L. Zhang, L. M. Tang, T. Qiu, et al., Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao 22, 1761 (2001).Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    D. E. Berbreiter, J. G. Franchina, and K. Kabza, Macromolecules 32, 4993 (1999).Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    D. Ratna, R. J. Varley, and G. P. Simon, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 89, 2339 (2003).Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    R. Mezzenga and J. A. E. Manson, J. Mater. Sci. 36, 4883 (2001).Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    G. Cicala, A. Recca, and C. Restuccia, Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 225 (2005).Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    R. J. Varley, Polym. Int. 53, 78 (2004).Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    J. Frohlich, H. Kautz, R. Thomann, et al., Polymer 45, 2155 (2004).Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    R. J. Varley and W. Tian, Polym. Int. 53, 69 (2004).Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    M. Sangermano, G. Malucelli, R. Bongiovanni, et al., Polym. Int. 54, 917 (2005).Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    M. Sangermano, A. Priola, G. Malucelli, et al., Macromol. Mater. Eng. 289, 442 (2004).Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    M. Sangermano, G. Malucelli, R. Bongiovanni, et al., Macromol. Mater. Eng. 289, 722 (2004).Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    R. Mezzenga, L. Boogh, and J. A. E. Månson, Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 787 (2001).Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    D. Ratna, O. Becker, R. Krishnamurthy, et al., Polymer 44, 7449 (2003).Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    M. Rodlert, C. J. G. Plummer, Y. Leterrier, et al., J. Rheol. (N. Y.) 48, 1049 (2004).Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    M. Rodlert, C. J. G. Plummer, L. Garamszegi, et al., Polymer 45, 949 (2004).Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    C. J. G. Plummer, L. Garamszegi, Y. Leterrier, et al., Chem. Mater. 14, 486 (2002).Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    G. V. Korolev and M. L. Bubnova, Hyperbranched Polymers as a New Powerful Stimulus for Development of Three-Dimensional Polymerization and a Revolution in Polymer Materials Science (Inst. Probl. Khim. Fiz., Ross. Akad. Nauk, Chernogolovka, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Problems of Chemical PhysicsRussian Academy of SciencesChernogolovka, Moscow oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations