Journal of Engineering Thermophysics

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 109–118 | Cite as

Attainable superheating of solutions of cryogenic liquids



The kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated binary solutions of cryogenic liquids is studied. Within the framework of the Kramers-Zeldovich method, an expression is obtained for the steady state rate of homogeneous nucleation in a solution that takes into account free-molecular and diffusion regimes of the substance supply to a growing bubble. Viscous and inertial forces are also taken into account in the study of the nucleus growth dynamics. The work of critical nucleus formation is determined within the framework of the Gibbs and van der Waals capillarity theories. The dependence of the surface tension of critical bubbles in the solution on their size is investigated.

The temperature of attainable superheating and nucleation rates in superheated solutions of cryogenic liquids with complete or partial solubility of the components are determined by a method of lifetime measurement. The experiments were conducted in a wide range of pressures and solution concentrations. The measurement results are compared with the theory of homogeneous nucleation taking or not taking into account the size effect in nucleation. It has been found that, by taking into account the size dependence of the surface tension of a nucleus, better agreement between the theory and experiment is obtained. The boundary of essential instability of the solution, that is, the diffusion spinodal, is computed.


Nucleation Rate Homogeneous Nucleation Critical Nucleus Engineer THERMOPHYSICS Bubble Nucleation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Skripov, V.P. and Kukushkin, V.I., Device for Observation of Limiting Superheating of Luquids, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1961, vol. 35, pp. 2811–2813.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blander, M., Hengstenberg, D., and Katz, J.L., Bubble Nucleation in N-pentane, N-hexane, N-pentane + Hexadecane Mixtures, and Water, J. Phys. Chem., 1971, vol. 75, pp. 3613–3619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eberhart, J.G., Kremsner, W., and Blander, M., Metastability Limits of Superheated Liquids: Bubble Nucleation Temperatures of Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 1975, vol. 50, pp. 369–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Porteous, W. and Blander, M., Limit of Superheat and Explosive Boiling of Light Hydrocarbons, Halocarbons, and Hydrocarbons Mixtures, AIChE J., 1975, vol. 21, pp. 560–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mori, Y., Hijikata, K., and Nagatani, T., Effect of Dissolved Gas on Bubble Nucleation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 1976, vol. 19, pp. 1153–1159.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Forest, T.W. and Ward, C.A., Effect of a Dissolved Gas on the Homogeneous Nucleation Pressure of a Liquid, J. Chem. Phys., 1977, vol. 66, pp. 2322–2330.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sinitsyn, E.N., Danilov, N.N., and Skripov, V.P., Nucleation in Cyclohexane-Benzol Superheated Liquid Mixtures, in Teplofizika (Thermophysics), Skripov, V.P. and Sheikman, A.G., Eds., Sverdlovsk: UNTs AN SSSR, 1971, pp. 22–26.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Skripov, V.P., Biryukova, L. V., Danilov, N.N., and Sinitsyn, E.N., Attainable Superheating of Phenyl Hexafluoride-N-hexane Solutions, in Teplofizicheskie issledovaniya zhidkostei (Thermophysical Research of Liquids), Ermakov, G. V., Ed., Sverdlovsk: UNTs AN SSSR, 1975, pp. 3–5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Danilov, N.N., Sinitsyn, E.N., and Skripov, V.P., Kinetics of Superheated Binary Solutions Boiling-up, in Teplofizika metastabil’nykh system (Thermophysics of Metastable Systems), Pavlov, P.A., Ed., Sverdlovsk: UNTs AN SSSR, 1977, pp. 28–42.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pavlov, P.A. and Skripov, P.V., Determination of Limiting Superheating Temperature for Carbon Dioxide Water Solution, Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur, 1985, vol. 23, pp. 70–76.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nesis, E. I. and Frenkel, Ya. I., Boiling-up of Gassed Liquid, Zh. tekh. fiz., 1952, vol. 22, pp. 1500–1505.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blander, M., Bubble Nucleation in Liquids, Adv. Coll. Int. Sci., 1979, vol. 10, pp. 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reiss, H. and Shugard, M., On the Composition of Nuclei in Binary Systems, J. Chem. Phys., 1976, vol. 65, pp. 5280–5293.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Volmer, M., Kinetik der Phasenbildung, Th. Steinkopff, Dresden-Leipzig, 1939.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibbs, J.W., The Collected Works, vol. 2, Thermodynamics, New York: Longmas and Green, 1928.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van der Waals, J.D., and Kohnstamm, Ph., Lehrbuch der Thermodynamik, Leipzig and Amsterdam: Johann-Ambrasius-Barth Verlag, 1908.MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baidakov, V.G., Mezhfaznaya granitsa prostykh klassicheskikh i kvantovykh zhidkostei (Interface of Simple Classical and Quantum Liquids), Yekaterinburg: Nauka, 1994.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baidakov, V.G. and Boltachev, G.Sh., Properties of Critical Nuclei of Liquid and Vapor in Binary Solutions, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1997, vol. 71, pp. 1965–1970 [Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1171–1776].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baidakov, V.G., Boltachev, G.Sh., Protsenko, S.P., and Chernykh, G.G., The van der Waals Theory of Capillarity and Computer Simulation, Kolloidnyi Zh., 2002, vol. 64, pp. 734–744 [Colloid Journal (Engl. Transl.), vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 661–670].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boltachev, G.Sh. and Baidakov, V.G., The Influence of Interface Curvature on the Properties of Nuclei of a New Phase in Binary Solution, Kolloidnyi Zh., 2000, vol. 62, pp. 5–11 [Colloid Journal (Engl. Transl.), vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 1–7].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Langer, J.S., Theory of the Condensation Point, Ann. Phys., 1967, vol. 41, pp. 108–157.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baidakov, V.G., Nucleation in Superheated Gas-saturated Solutions: Boiling-up Kinetics, J. Chem. Phys., 1999, vol. 110, pp. 3955–3960.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baidakov, V.G., Boiling-up Kinetics of Superheated Binary Solutions, Teplofizika Vys. Temp., 1999, vol. 37, pp. 595–601.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baidakov, V.G., Explosive Boiling of Superheated Cryogenic Liquids, Berlin: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2007.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zeldovich, Ya.B., On the Theory of New Phase Formation. Cavitation, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 1942, vol. 12, pp. 525–538.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Skripov, V.P., Metastabil’naya zhidkost’ (Metastable Liquid), Moscow: Nauka, 1972.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baidakov, V.G., Peregrev kriogennykh zhidkostei (Superheating of Cryogenic Liquids), Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 1995.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baidakov, V.G., in Nucleation Theory and Applications. Boiling-up Kinetics of Solutions of Cryogenic Liquids, Schmelzer, J.W.P., Ed., Berlin: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2005, pp. 19–87.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baidakov, V.G., Kaverin, A.M., and Boltachev, G.Sh., Nucleation in Superheated Liquid Argon-Krypton Solutions, J. Chem. Phys., 1997, vol. 106, pp. 5648–5657.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sulla, I.I. and Baidakov, V.G., Effects of Small Helium Additions on the Surface Tension of Liquid Oxygen, Vysokochistye Veschestva, 1988, no. 2, pp. 51–55.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baidakov, V.G. and Sulla, I.I., Surface Tension of Helium-Oxygen and Helium-Ethane Solutions, Int. J. Thermophysics, 1995, vol. 16, pp. 909–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sulla, I.I. and Baidakov, V.G., Liquid-Vapor Interface in Argon-Krypton System: Experiment, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1994, vol. 68, pp. 63–66.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaverin, A.M., Andbaeva V.N., and Baidakov, V.G., Surface Tension at Boundaries of Helium-Argon and Neon-Argon Solutions in the Temperature Interval 108-140 K, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 2006, vol. 80, pp. 495–499.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baidakov, V.G and Kaverin, A.M., Capillary Constant and Surface Tension of Argon-Helium Solution, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 2004, vol. 78, pp. 1150–1152.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baidakov, V.G. and Boltachev, G.Sh., Surface Tension at Liquid-Vapor Interface for Critical Nuclei, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1995, vol. 69, pp. 515–520.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baidakov, V.G. and Boltachev, G.Sh., Curvature Dependence of the Surface Tension of Liquid and Vapor Nuclei, Phys. Rev. E., 1999, vol. 59, pp. 469–475.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Baidakov, V.G. and Kaverin, A.M., Attainable Superheating of Helium-Oxygen Solutions, Teplofizika Vys. Temp., 2000, vol. 38, pp. 886–894.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baidakov, V.G., Kaverin, A.M., and Boltachev, G.Sh., Experimental Investigations on Nucleation in Helium-Oxygen Mixtures, J. Phys. Chem. B., 2002, vol. 106, pp. 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kuni, F.M., Melikhov, A.A., Novozhilova, T.Yu., and Terent’ev, I.A., Covariant Formulation of the Multidimensional Kinetic Theory of Phase Transitions of the First Kind, Teor. Matem. Fiz., 1990, vol. 83, pp. 274–290.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Trinkaus, H., Theory of the Nucleation of Multicomponent Precipitates, Phys. Rev. B, 1983, vol. 27, pp. 7372–7378.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Thermal PhysicsUral Division of the Russian Academy of SciencesYekaterinburgRussia

Personalised recommendations