Regular and Chaotic Dynamics of a Chaplygin Sleigh due to Periodic Switch of the Nonholonomic Constraint
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The main goal of the article is to suggest a two-dimensional map that could play the role of a generalized model similar to the standard Chirikov–Taylor mapping, but appropriate for energy-conserving nonholonomic dynamics. In this connection, we consider a Chaplygin sleigh on a plane, supposing that the nonholonomic constraint switches periodically in such a way that it is located alternately at each of three legs supporting the sleigh. We assume that at the initiation of the constraint the respective element (“knife edge”) is directed along the local velocity vector and becomes instantly fixed relative to the sleigh till the next switch. Differential equations of the mathematical model are formulated and an analytical derivation of mapping for the state evolution on the switching period is provided. The dynamics take place with conservation of the mechanical energy, which plays the role of one of the parameters responsible for the type of the dynamic behavior. At the same time, the Liouville theorem does not hold, and the phase volume can undergo compression or expansion in certain state space domains. Numerical simulations reveal phenomena characteristic of nonholonomic systems with complex dynamics (like the rattleback or the Chaplygin top). In particular, on the energy surface attractors associated with regular sustained motions can occur, settling in domains of prevalent phase volume compression together with repellers in domains of the phase volume expansion. In addition, chaotic and quasi-periodic regimes take place similar to those observed in conservative nonlinear dynamics.
Keywordsnonholonomic mechanics Chaplygin sleigh attractor chaos bifurcation Chirikov–Taylor map
Keywords37J60 37C10 34D45 37E30 34C60
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