Granite Systems with Rare-Metal Pegmatites


For most rare-metal pegmatite fields, two generations of granitic pegmatites are documented, namely, beryll-bearing (often with tantaloniobates and muscovite, which are inseparable from vein granites of the leucogranite complex), and Na-Li (Li, Ta, Cs, Be, and Sn) (LCT-pegmatites). The latter, in turn, subdivide into (i) a “multicomponent rare-metal type” with pegmatite zoning and main mineralization (large crystals of spodumene, tantalates, beryll, cassiterite, pollucite, petalite, and amblygonite) in the central parts of the respective bodies (Koktogai, Bernic Lake, Bikita, Karibib, Varutrask, Vishnyakovskoe, and others) and (ii) “albite-spodumene pegmatites” that compose multiple extended dikes that are devoid of pegmatite zoning and are grouped into fields of up to 10–15 km or more in length (Kings Mountain, Zavitinskoe, Gol’tsovoe, Kolmozero, Polmos-Tundrovoe, Tastyg, and others). For a number of deposits (e.g., Zavitinskoe, Vasin-Myl’k, and Shukbyul’), the occurrence of multicomponent rare-metal pegmatites in the “heads” of feeding dikes of “albite–spodumene pegmatites” is established. Any attempt to identify parent granites for “albite–spodumene pegmatites” is a priori futile, because these are not pegmatites, but granites, although specific ones (in fact, spodumene granites of the Allakha type). The purely terminological correction, granite instead of pegmatite, surprisingly has both scientific and forecasting implications. The scientific implications imply that, first, the problem about parent granites is solved and, second, the “pegmatite” status of “albite–spodumene pegmatites” no longer debated. These pegmatites correspond to the particular, spodumene–rare-metal–granite stage in the history of magmatism of certain pegmatite-bearing areas (the end of this stage was marked by the formation of true multicomponent pegmatites that are characteristic of only this stage). Regarding the forecast implications, it can be supposed that such multicomponent deposits as Koktogai, Bernic Lake, Bikita, Karibib, and Vishnyakovskoe are underlain by a suite of dikes comprised by spodumene-bearing rare-metal granites (i.e., an independent Li deposit), and multicomponent pegmatites are differentiates of these granites.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.


  1. 1

    Annikova, I.Yu., Vladimirov, A.G., Smirnov, S.Z., and Gavryushkin, O.A., Geology and mineralogy of the Alakha spodumene granite porphyry deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2016, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 404–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Beskin, S.M. and Banzekin, V.A., Multiphase model of formation of rare-metal granite pegmatites, Mineralogiya i genesis pegmatitov (Mineralogy and Genesis of Pegmatites), Miass: Nst. Mineralogii UrO AN SSSR, 991, Vol. 1, pp. 104–106.

  3. 3

    Beskin, S.M., Larin, V.N., and Marin, Yu.B., Redkometall’nye granitovye formtatsii (Rare-Metal Granite Formations), Leningrad: Nedra, 1979.

  4. 4

    Beskin, S.M. and Shmakin, B.M., Albite–spodumene pegmatites as a kind of rare-metal granites, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1980, vol. 252, no. 3, pp. 684–687.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Beskin, S.M. and Marin, Yu.B., On the polygenetic nature of rare-metal mineralization in granite ore magmatic systems, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 1998, no. 2, pp. 41–54.

  6. 6

    Beskin, S.M. and Marin, Yu.B., Classification of granitic pegmatites and pegmatite-bearing granitic systems, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 2017, no. 6, pp. 1–17.

  7. 7

    Beskin, S.M., Marin, Y.B., Matias, V.V., and Gavrilova, S.P., So, what is “rare metal granite”? Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 1999, no. 6, pp. 28–40.

  8. 8

    Brandley, D., Chea, E., Buchwald, T.R., Bowring, S., Benowits, J., O Snllivan P., and Mccauley, A., Geohronologic and tectonic context of Li–Cs–Ta pegmatites in the Appalachiaes, Can. Mineral., 2016, vol. 54, pp. 945–969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Bykhovsky, L.Z. and Potanin, S.D., Geologo-promyshlennye tipy redkometal’nykh mestorozhdenii (Geological and Industrial Types of Rare-Metal Deposits, Moscow: VIMS, 2009.

  10. 10

    Černý, P. and Ercit, T.S., The classification of granitic pegmatites revisited, Can. Mineral., 2005, vol. 43, pp. 2005–2026.

  11. 11

    Fersman, A.E., Pegmatity. 1940. Izbrannye Trudy (Pegmatites. 1940. Selected Works) Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR., 1960, vol. 6.

  12. 12

    Galliski, M.Á., Márquez-Zavalia, M.F., and Pagano, D.S., Metallogenesis of the Totoral LCT rare-element pegmatite district, San Luis, Argentina: A review, J. South Amer. Earth Sci., 2019, vol. 90, pp. 423–439.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Ginzburg, A.I., Timofeev, I.N., and Feldman, L.G., Osnovy geologii granitnykh pegmatitov (Principles of the Granite Pegmatites Geology, Moscow: Nedra, 1979.

  14. 14

    Gordienko, V.V., Granitnye pegmatity (Granite Pegmatites), St. Petersburg: St. Petersb. Gos. Univ., 1996.

  15. 15

    Granitnye pegmatity. Vol. 2. Redkometal’nye pegmatite (Granite Pegmatites. Vol. 2. Rare-Metal Pegmatites), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1997.

  16. 16

    Hanson, S.L., A tectonic evaluation of pegmatite Parent granites, Can. Mineral., 2016, vol. 54, pp. 917–933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Kudrin, V.S., Stavrov, O.D., and Shuriga, T.N., New spodumene type of tantalum-bearing rare-metal granites, Petrologiya, 1994, no. 1, pp. 88–95.

  18. 18

    Kuznetsova, L.G. and Shokalsky, S.P., Deposits of lithium in rare metal pegmatites of the Republic of Tyva, Materialy Vserossiskogo Nauchno-prakticheskogo soveshchaniya “Litii Rossii” (Proc. All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Lithium of Russia”) Novosibirsk: SB RAS, 2011, pp. 65–70.

  19. 19

    Kuznetsova, L.G., Shokalsky, S.P., and Sergeev, S.A., Age, composition and geodynamic environment of formation of granites and lithium-rich rare-element pegmatites of the Khusuingol Field (Sangilen highlands), Dokl. Earth Sci, 2018, vol. 482, pp. 1311–1316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Lishnevsky, E.N., Geological and geophysical characteristics of tin- and molybdenum-bearing ore-forming systems, Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., 1991, no. 5, pp. 55–68.

  21. 21

    Melentyev, G.B., Lithium potential of Russia, Redkie Zemli (Rare Earths), 2016, no. 2, pp. 150–163.

  22. 22

    Naumov, A.V., Lithium: the superopportunities of supermetal, Redkie Zemli (Rare earths), 2016, no. 2, pp. 140–149.

  23. 23

    Ob’emnoe geologicheskoe kartirovanie redkometal’nykh rudnykh raionov (3D Geological Mapping of Rare-Metal Ore Districts), Leningrad: Nedra, 1981.

  24. 24

    Solodov, N.A., Vnutrennee stroenie I geokhimoiya redkometal’nykh granitnykh pegmatitov (Internal Structure and Geochemistry of Rare-Earth Granite Pegmatites, Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1962.

  25. 25

    Printsipy raschleneniya i kartirovaniye granitoidnykh intrusii i vydeleniya petrologo-metallogenicheskikh variantov granitoidnykh serii (Principles of Subdivision and Mapping of of Granitoid Intrusions and Identification of Petrological and Metallogenic Types of Granitoid Series), St. Petersburg: VSEGEI, 2007.

  26. 26

    Vlasov, K.A., Textural and paragenetic classification of granitic pegmatites, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Ser. Geol., 1952, no. 2, pp. 30–35.

  27. 27

    Vlasov, K.A., Principle of the granitic pegmatites classification and their textural and-paragenetic types, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Ser. Geol., 1961, no. 1, pp. 30–35.

  28. 28

    Zagorsky, V.E. and Kuznetsova, L.G., Geokhimiya spodumenovykh pegmatitov i shchelochno-redkometal’nykh metasomatitov (Geochemistry of Spodumene Pegmatites and Alkaline-Rare Metal Metasomatites), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1990.

  29. 29

    Zagorsky, V.E., Vladimirov, A.G., Makagon, V.M., Kuznetsova, L.G., Smirnov, S.Z., Dyachkov, B.A., Annikova, I.Yu., Shokalsky, S.P., and Uvarov, A.N., Large fields of spodumene pegmatites in the settings of rifting and postcollisional shear-pull-apart dislocations of continental lithosphere, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2014, no. 2, pp. 237–251.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yu. B. Marin.

Additional information

Translated by N. Astafiev

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Beskin, S.M., Marin, Y.B. Granite Systems with Rare-Metal Pegmatites. Geol. Ore Deposits 62, 554–563 (2020).

Download citation


  • granitic pegmatites and pegmatoids
  • multicomponent rare-metal pegmatites
  • albite–spodumene pegmatites
  • spodumene-bearing granites of the Allakha type
  • spodumene–rare-metal–granite stage in the history of magmatism