Geology of Ore Deposits

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 35–60 | Cite as

Kizilcaören ore-bearing complex with carbonatites (northwestern Anatolia, Turkey): Formation time and mineralogy of rocks

  • A. V. Nikiforov
  • H. Öztürk
  • S. Altuncu
  • V. A. Lebedev


The results of isotope-geochronological and mineralogical studies of the rocks making up the Kizilcaören fluorite-barite-REE deposit, northwestern Anatolia, Turkey are discussed in the paper. The ore is a constituent of the subvolcanic complex localized in a large fault zone. The complex combines (from earlier to later rocks): (1) phonolite and trachyte stocks, (2) carbonatite and carbonate-silicate dikelike bodies; and (3) fluorite-barite-bastnaesite ore in the form of thick homogeneous veins and cement in breccia. The K-Ar dating of silicate igneous rocks and carbonatites shows that they were formed in the Chattian Age of the Oligocene 25–24 Ma ago. Mineralogical observations show that the ore is the youngest constituent in the rock complex. Supergene alteration deeply transformed ore-bearing rocks, in particular, resulting in leaching of primary minerals, presumably Ca-Mn-Fe carbonates, and in cementation of the residual bastnaesitefluorite framework by Fe and Mn hydroxides. Most of the studied rocks contain pyrochlore, LREE fluorocarbonates, Nb-bearing rutile, Fe-Mg micas, and K-feldspar. The genetic features of the deposit have been considered. In general, the ore-bearing rock complex is compared in the set of rocks and their mineralogy and geochemistry with deposits of the Gallinas Mountains in the United States, the Arshan and Khalyuta deposits in the western Transbaikalia region, and Mushugai-Khuduk deposit in Mongolia. The Kizilcaören deposit represents a variant of postmagmatic mineralization closely related to carbonatite magmatism associated with alkaline and subalkaline intermediate rocks.


Calcite Breccia Barite Nepheline Light Rare Earth Element 
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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Nikiforov
    • 1
  • H. Öztürk
    • 2
  • S. Altuncu
    • 3
  • V. A. Lebedev
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and GeochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Geological EngineeringIstanbul University, Avcilar CampusIstambulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Geological EngineeringNigde UniversityNigdeTurkey

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