Geology of Ore Deposits

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 125–143 | Cite as

Genesis of massive sulfide deposits in the Verkhneural’sk ore district, the South Urals, Russia: Evidence for magmatic contribution of metals and fluids

  • V. S. Karpukhina
  • V. B. Naumov
  • I. V. Vikent’ev


Melt inclusions and aqueous fluid inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from host felsic volcanics, as well as fluid inclusions in minerals of ores and wall rocks were studied at the Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits in the Verkhneural’sk ore district, the South Urals. The high-temperature (850–1210°C) magmatic melts of volcanic rocks are normal in alkalinity and correspond to rhyolites of the tholeiitic series. The groups of predominant K-Na-type (K2O/Na2O = 0.3–1.0), less abundant Na-type (K2O/Na2O = 0.15–0.3), and K-type (K2O/Na2O = 1.9–9.3) rhyolites are distinguished. The average concentrations (wt %) of volatile components in the melts are as follows: 2.9 H2O (up to 6.5), 0.13 Cl (up to 0.28), and 0.09 F (up to 0.42). When quartz was crystallizing, the melt was heterogeneous, contained magnetite crystals and sulfide globules (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, bornite). High-density aqueous fluid inclusions, which were identified for the first time in quartz phenocrysts from felsic volcanics of the South Urals, provide evidence for real participation of magmatic water in hydrothermal ore formation. The fluids were homogenized at 124–245°C in the liquid phase; the salinity of the aqueous solution is 1.2–6.2 wt % NaCl equiv. The calculated fluid pressure is very high: 7.0–8.7 kbar at 850°C and 5.1–6.8 kbar at 700°C. The LA-ICP-MS analysis of melt and aqueous fluid inclusions in quartz phenocrysts shows a high saturation of primary magmatic fluid and melt with metals. This indicates ore potential of island-arc volcanic complexes spatially associated with massive sulfide deposits. The systematic study of fluid inclusions in minerals of ores and wall rocks at five massive sulfide deposits of the Verkhneural’sk district furnished evidence that ore-forming fluids had temperature of 375–115°C, pressure up to 1.0–0.5 kbar, chloride composition, and salinity of 0.8–11.2 (occasionally up to 22.8) wt % NaCl equiv. The H and O isotopic compositions of sericite from host metasomatic rocks suggest a substantial contribution of seawater to the composition of mineral-forming fluids. The role of magmatic water increases in the central zones of the feeding conduit and with depth. The dual nature of fluids with the prevalence of their magmatic source is supported by S, C, O, and Sr isotopic compositions. The TC parameters of the formation of massive sulfide deposits are consistent with the data on fluid inclusions from contemporary sulfide mounds on the oceanic bottom.


Fluid Inclusion Metasomatic Rock Melt Inclusion Magmatic Fluid Massive Sulfide Deposit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amplieva, E.E., Vikent’ev, I.V., Karpukhina, V.S., and Bortnikov, N.S., The Role of Magmatic Fluid in the Formation of the Talgan Copper-Zinc-Pyritic Deposit, Southern Urals, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2008, vol. 423A, no. 9, pp. 1427–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baranov, E.N., Endogennye geokhimicheskie oreoly kolchedannykh mestorozhdenii (Endogenetic Geochemical Halos of Massive Sulfide Deposits), Moscow: Nauka, 1987.Google Scholar
  3. Baranov, E.N., Devirts, A.L., Karpukhina, V.S., and Lagutina, E.P., Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Sericite from the Uzel’ga Deposit, the South Urals, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1987, vol. 295, pp. 946–952.Google Scholar
  4. Baranov, E.N., Steinberg, A.D., and Karpukhina, V.S., A Genetic Model and Exploration Criteria for Buried Massive Sulphide Deposits of the Verkhneuralsky Area, the Southern Urals, USSR, in Proceedings of the 7th IAGOD Symposium, Stuttgart, 1988, pp. 449–460.Google Scholar
  5. Bobokhov, A.S., Gorozhanin, V.M., and Kuz’min, S.A., Strontsievo-izotopnye dannye dlya kislykh vulkanitov Magnitogorskogo megasinklinoriya Yuzhnogo Urala (Strontium Isotopic Data on Silicic Volcanic Rocks of the Magnitogorsk Megasynclinorium of the Southern Urals), Ufa: Bashir. Sci. Center, Ural Division, USSR Acad. Sci., 1989.Google Scholar
  6. Borisenko, A.S., Cryometric Study of Salt Composition of the Solutions Filling Fluid Inclusions in Minerals, Geol. Geofiz., 1977, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 16–27.Google Scholar
  7. Borisova, A.Y., Freydier, R., Polve, M., et al., In Situ Multi-Elemental Analysis of the Mount Pinatubo Quartz-Hosted Melt Inclusions by NIR Femtosecond Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, Geostand. Geoanalyt. Res., 2008, vol. 32, pp. 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borisova, A.Y., Freydier, R., Polve, M., et al., Multi-Elemental Analysis of ATHO-G Rhyolitic Glass (MPI-DING Reference Material) by Femtosecond and Nanosecond LA-ICP-MS: Evidence for Significant Heterogeneity of B, V, Zn, Mo, Sn, Sb, Cs, W, Pt and Pb at the Millimeter Scale, Geostand. Geoanalyt. Res, 2010, vol. 34, pp. 245–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bortnikov, N.S., Krylova, T.L., Bogdanov, Yu.A., et al., The 14°45′ N Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Fluid Inclusions and Sulfur Isotope Evidence for Submarine Phase Separation, in Mineral Deposits: Research and Exploration, Where Do They Meet?, Rotterdam: Balkema, 1997, pp. 353–356.Google Scholar
  10. Bortnikov, N.S., Simonov, V.A., and Bogdanov, Yu.A., Fluid Inclusions in Minerals from Modern Sulfide Edifices: Physicochemical Conditions of Formation and Evolution of Fluids, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2004, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 64–75.Google Scholar
  11. Bortnikov, N.S., Simonov, V.A., Fouquet, I., and Amplieva, E.E., Phase Separation of Fluid in the Ashadze Deep-Sea Modern Submarine Hydrothermal Field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 12°58′ N): Results of Fluid Inclusion Study and Direct Observations, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2010, vol. 435, no. 1, pp. 1446–1449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bortnikov, N.S., Simonov, V.A., Borovikov, A.A., and Amplieva, E.E., Ore Components in the Solutions of the Semenov Hydrothermal Field (Central Atlantica): Data on Fluid Inclusions, in Abstracts of the 15th All-Russia Conference on Thermobarogeochemistry, Moscow: IGEM RAS, 2012, pp. 21–22.Google Scholar
  13. Bortnikov, N.S. and Vikent’ev, I.V., Modern Base-Metal Sulfide Mineral Formation in the World Ocean, Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., 2005, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 13–44.Google Scholar
  14. Davidson, P. and Kamenetsky, V.S., Primary Aqueous Fluids in Rhyolitic Magmas: Melt Inclusion Evidence for Pre- and Post-Trapping Exsolution, Chem. Geol., 2007, vol. 237, pp. 372–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drummond, S.E. and Ohmoto, H., Chemical Evolution and Mineral Deposition in Boiling Hydrothermal Systems, Econ. Geol., 1985, vol. 80, pp. 126–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fedorov, B.V., Volynets, O.N., and Popov, V.S., Sulfide Microinclusions in Acid and Intermediate Volcanics of the Kurile-Kamchatka Island Arc, Petrology, 1996, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 184–191.Google Scholar
  17. Franklin, J.M., Gibson, H.L., Jonasson, I.R., and Galley, A.G., Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits, Econ. Geol., 2005, 100th Anniversary vol., pp. 523–560.Google Scholar
  18. Grichuk, D.V., Thermodynamic Model of Ore-Forming Processes in a Submarine Island-Arc Hydrothermal System, Geochem. Int., 2012, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 1069–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herzig, P.M., Hannington, M.D., and Arribas, A., Jr. Sulfur Isotope Composition of Hydrothermal Precipitates from Lau Back Arc: Implications for Magmatic Contributions to Hydrothermal Systems, Miner. Deposita, 1998, vol. 33, pp. 226–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herzig, P.M., Hannington, M.D., Fouquet, Y., et al., Gold-Rich Polymetalic Sulfides from the Lau Back Arc and Implications for Geochemistry of Gold in Sea-Floor Hydrothermal Systems of the Southwest Pacific, Econ. Geol., 1993, vol. 88, pp. 2182–2209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kamenetsky, V.S., Binns, R.A., Gemmell, J.B., et al., Parental Basaltic Melts and Fluids in Eastern Manus Backarc Basin: Implications for Hydrothermal Mineralization, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2001, vol. 184, nos 3/4, pp. 685–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Karpukhina, V.S. and Baranov, E.N., Physicochemical Formation Conditions of Massivbe Sulfide Deposits in the Verkhneural’sk Ore Ditrict, the Southern Urals, Geokhimiya, 1995, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 48–64.Google Scholar
  23. Karpukhina, V.S., Naumov, V.B., Baranov, E.N., and Kononkova, N.N., The Melt Composition of Acid Volcanics of the Verkhneural’sk Ore Region, Southern Urals: Evidence from Inclusions in Quartz, Dokl. Earth Sci., 1998, vol. 358, no. 1, pp. 76–79.Google Scholar
  24. Karpukhina, V.S., Naumov, V.B., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Salazkin, A.N., Melt and High-Density Fluid Inclusions of Magmatic Water in Phenocrysts of Quartz from Acidic Volcanic Rocks of the Verkhneural’sk Ore District, South Urals, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2009, vol. 426, no. 4 pp. 580–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Korsakova, N.V., Kokina, T.A., Sushchevskaya, T.M., and Varshal, G.M., Potentiometric Determination of Sulfide Sulfur in the Solutions Filling Inclusions in Minerals, Geokhimiya, 1991, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 46–56.Google Scholar
  26. Krasnov, S.G., Cherkashov, G.A., and Ainemer, A.I., Gidrotermal’nye sul’fidnye rudy i metallonosnye osadki okeana (Hydrothermal Sulfide Ores and Metalliferous Sediments in Ocean), St. Petersburg: Nedra, 1992.Google Scholar
  27. Krivtsov, A.I., Minina, O.I., Volchkov, A.G., et al., Mestorozhdeniya kolchedannogo semeistva. Seriya: modeli mestorozhdenii blagorodnykh i tsvetnykh metallov (Family of VHMS Deposits. Series: Models of Deposits of Noble and Nonferrous Metals), Moscow: TsNIGRI, 2002.Google Scholar
  28. Mednokolchedannye mestorozhdeniya Urala: geologicheskoe stroenie (Copper Massive Sulfide Deposits in the Urals: Geology), Smirnov, V.I., Ed., Sverdlovsk: Ural Division, Acad. Sci. USSR, 1988.Google Scholar
  29. Mednokolchedannye mestorozhdeniya Urala: usloviya formirovaniya (Copper Massive Sulfide Deposits in the Urals: Formation Conditions), Smirnov, V.I., Ed., Yekaterinburg: Ural Division, Russian Acad. Sci., 1992.Google Scholar
  30. Naumov, V.B., Thermometric Study of Melt Inclusions in Quartz Phenocrysts of Quartz Porphyries, Geokhimiya, 1969, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 494–497.Google Scholar
  31. Naumov, V.B., Possibilities of Determination of Pressure and Density of Mineral-Forming Media from Inclusions in Minerals, in Ispol’zovanie metodov termobarogeokhimii pri poiskakh i izuchenii rudnykh mestorozhdenii (Thermopbarochemical Methods Used in Prospecting and Exploration of Ore Deposits), Moscow: Nedra, 1982, pp. 85–93.Google Scholar
  32. Naumov, V.B., Solovova, I.P., Kovalenker, V.A., et al., New Data on High-Density Magmatic Aqueous Fluid Inclusions in Phenocrysts of Rhyolites, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1991, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 187–190.Google Scholar
  33. Naumov, V.B., Solovova, I.P., Kovalenker, V.A., et al., Magmatic Water under a Pressure of 15–17 kbar and Its Concentration in Melt: the First Data on Inclusions in Plagioclases in Andesites, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1992, vol. 324, no. 3, pp. 654–658.Google Scholar
  34. Naumov, V.B., Kovalenker, V.A., Rusinov, V.L., and Kononkova, N.N., High-Pressure Fluid Inclusions of Magmatic Water in the Phenocrysts of Silicic Volcanics in the Western Carpathians and the Middle Tien Shan, Petrology, 1994, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 480–494.Google Scholar
  35. Naumov, V.B., Karpukhina, V.S., Baranov, E.N., and Kononkova, N.N., Melt Compositions, Contents of Volatile Components and Trace Elements, and Temperatures of Quartz Crystallization in Silicic Volcanic Rocks of the Verkhneural’sk Ore District (Southern Urals), Geochem. Int., 1999, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 339–351.Google Scholar
  36. Naumov, V.B., Tolstykh, M.L., Grib, E.N., et al., Chemical Composition, Volatile Components, and Trace Elements in Melts of the Karymskii Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, and Golovnina Volcano, Kunashir Island: Evidence from Inclusions in Minerals, Petrology, 2008, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nosova, A.A., Sazonova, L.V., Narkisova, V.V., and Simakin, S.G., Minor Elements in Clinopyroxene from Paleozoic Volcanics of the Tagil Island Arc in the Middle Urals, Geochem. Int., 2002, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 219–232.Google Scholar
  38. Popov, V.S. and Fedorov, B.V., Sulfide Microinclusions in the Pliocene-Quaternary Volcanic Rocks of the Caucasus, Geokhimiya, 1995, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 386–403.Google Scholar
  39. Portnyagin, M.V., Simakin, S.G., and Sobolev, A.V., Fluorine in Primitive Magmas of the Troodos Ophiolite Complex, Cyprus: Analytical Methods and Main Results, Geochem. Int., 2002, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 691–699.Google Scholar
  40. Portnyagin, M.V., Naumov, V.B., Mironov, N.L., et al., Composition and Evolution of the Melts Erupted in 1996 at Karymskoe Lake, Eastern Kamchatka: Evidence from Inclusions in Minerals, Geochem. Int., 2011, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 085–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Portnyagin, M., Hoernle, K., Storm, S., et al., H2O-Rich Melt Inclusions in Fayalitic Olivine from Hekla Volcano: Implications for Phase Relationships in Silicic Systems and Driving Forces of Explosive Volcanism on Iceland, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2012, vol. 357/358, pp. 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prokin, V.A. and Buslaev, F.P., Massive Copper-Zinc Deposits in the Urals, Ore Geol. Rev., 1999, vol. 14, pp. 1–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roedder, E., Fluid Inclusions As Samples of Ore Fluids, in Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits Barnes, H.L. Ed., New York: Wiley, 1979; Moscow, Mir, 1982.Google Scholar
  44. Reif, F.G., Prokof’ev, V.Yu., Borovikov, A.A., et al., Concentration of Metals in the Ore-Forming Solutions, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1992, vol. 325, no. 3, pp. 585–589.Google Scholar
  45. Seravkin, I.B., Kosarev, A.M., Salikhov, D.N., et al., Vulkanizm Yuzhnogo Urala (Volcanism of the Southern Urals), Moscow: Nauka, 1992.Google Scholar
  46. Simonov, V.A., Gaskov, I.V., Kovyazin, S.V., and Borisenko, A.S., Evolution of the Geochemical Parameters of Silicic Melts during the Formation of the Massive Sulfide Deposits in Rudny Altai, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2005, vol. 403(6), pp. 935–938.Google Scholar
  47. Simonov, V.A., Gaskov, I.V., and Kovyazin, S.V., Physico-Chemical Parameters from Melt Inclusions for the Formation of the Massive Sulfide Deposits in the Altai-Sayan Region, Central Asia, Austral. J. Earth Sci., 2010, vol. 57, pp. 737–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Simonov, V.A., Kovyazin, S.V., Terenya, E.O., et al., Physicochemical Parameters of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes at the Yaman-Kasy Massive Sulfide Deposit, the Southern Urals, Geol. Ore Deposits., 2006, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 369–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sobolev, A.V., Melt Inclusions in Minerals as a Source of Principle Petrological Information, Petrology, 1996, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 209–220.Google Scholar
  50. Vanko, D.A., Bach, W., and Roberts, S., Fluid Inclusion Evidence for Subsurface Phase Separation and Variable Fluid Mixing Regimes beneath the Deep-Sea PAC-MANUS Hydrothermal Field, Manus Basin Back Arc Rift, Papua New Guinea, J. Geophys. Res., 2004, vol. 109, no. B032201, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  51. Vikent’ev, I.V., Usloviya formirovaniya i metamorfizm kolchedannykh rud (Formation Conditions and Metamorphism of Massive Sulfide Ores), Moscow: Nauchnyi mir, 2004.Google Scholar
  52. Vikent’ev, I.V., Borisova, A.Yu., Karpukhina, V.S., et al., Direct Data on the Ore Potential of Acid Magmas of the Uzel’ga Ore Field, the Southern Urals, Russia, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, vol. 443, no. 1, pp. 401–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vikent’ev, I.V., Karpukhina, V.S., Naumov, V.B., et al., Physicochemical Formation Conditions Tash-Yar Zinc Massive Sulfide Deposits, the Southern Urals, in Trudy XI Mezhdunar. konf. po termobarogeokhimii (Proceedings of the 11th Intern. Conference on Thermobarogeochemistry), Aleksandrov: VNIISIMS, 2004, pp. 487–499.Google Scholar
  54. Vikent’ev, I.V., Karpukhina, V.S., Nosik, L.P., and Eremin, N.I., Formation Conditions of the Tash-Yar Zinc Massive Sulfide Deposit, Southern Urals, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2009, vol. 429, no. 8, pp. 1241–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vikent’ev, I.V., Karpukhina, V.S., Shishakova, L.N., et al., Formation Conditions of the Uchaly Massive Sulfide Deposit, the Southern Urals, in Problemy geologii rudnykh mestorozhdenii, mineralogii, petrologii i geokhimii (Geology of Ore Deposits, Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry), Moscow: IGEM RAS, 2008, pp. 46–49.Google Scholar
  56. Yang, K. and Scott, S.D., Magmatic Fluids As a Source of Metals in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems, in Back-Arc Spreading Systems: Geological, Biological, Chemical, and Physical Interactions, Amer. Geophys. Union, Geophys. Monogr. Series, vol. 166, pp. 163–184.Google Scholar
  57. Yashchinin, S.B., The Tash-Yar Sulfide Occurrence, in Geologiya, mineralogiya i geokhimiya sul’fidnykh mestorozhdenii Yu. Urala (Geology, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Sulfide Deposits in the Southern Urals), Ufa: Bashkir Filial Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1970, pp. 135–141.Google Scholar
  58. Zaykov, V.V., Vulkanizm i sul’fidnye kholmy paleookeanicheskikh okrain (Volcanism and Sulfide Mounds of Paleooceanic Margins), Moscow: Nauka, 2006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. S. Karpukhina
    • 1
  • V. B. Naumov
    • 1
  • I. V. Vikent’ev
    • 2
  1. 1.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical ChemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and GeochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations