Geology of Ore Deposits

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 13–26 | Cite as

Rhenium in porphyry copper deposits of the urals

Article

Abstract

The overwhelming majority of porphyry Mo-Au-Cu deposits in the Urals are related to the low-K quartz diorite minor intrusions of the island-arc type, which were formed from Silurian Middle-Late Carboniferous. In the South Urals, the Cu/Mo ratio of ore decreases eastward along with enrichment in Re. At the same time, molybdenite is depleted in this metal in compliance with more sialic crust and potassium content in ore-bearing dioritic rocks. Quartz diorites at the highest-Re deposits contain 1–2 wt % K2O. At most Early-Middle Devonian deposits and occurrences of the western Tagil-Magnitogorsk-West Mugodzhary femic megazone, molybdenite is sporadic. The Re content in rocks was mainly determined using the kinetic method and to a lesser extent with ICP-MS. A Cameca SX-100 microprobe was also used for study of molybdenite. The Cu/Mo ratio of ore exceeds 600; the Mo content is commonly 1–15 ppm (occasionally up to 30 ppm and higher); the Re content is up to 0.01–0.04 ppm, sporadically increasing to 0.08–0.17 ppm. At the same time, the Re content in molybdenite often reaches 0.2–0.4 wt %. The highest Re concentration was established in the ore of the largest Mikheevsky deposit formed in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous and localized in the easternmost part of the East Ural sialic-femic megazone. The Re content in the orebodies of this deposit often reaches 0.2–0.5 ppm (up to 1.4–2.7 ppm) and 0.21 wt % in molybdenite. The average Mo grade of ore is 80 ppm and Cu/Mo ratio is 66. These data and Sr isotopic composition of ore-bearing granitoid and metasomatic rocks [(87Sr/86Sr)t = 0.7038–0.7051; (ɛNd)t = 3–7] testify to the mantle source of matter with insignificant admixture of crustal material. The same is apparently valid for Re and Cu in contrast to Mo. This statement is corroborated by the inverse correlation between Cu/Mo and Mo/Re ratios in the ore. Fluid-crystal fractionation of ore-bearing dioritic rocks is accompanied by enrichment of ore in Mo and by decrease in Re content in molybdenite. In the Tarutino ore field, the pyrite-chalcopyrite mineralization gives way to the molybdenite mineralization in line with in-sequence intrusion of diorite with quartz-bearing groundmass and granodiorite porphyry. Because of increasing silica content in granitoids, the Re concentration in molybdenite commonly remains below 0.07 wt % as is noted at the rare deposits localized in the sialic megazones.

Keywords

Pyrite Chalcopyrite Molybdenite Porphyry Copper Metasomatic Rock 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barra, F., Ruiz, J., Mathur, R., and Titley, S., A Re-Os Study of Sulfide Minerals from the Bagdad Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Northern Arizona, USA, Miner. Deposita, 2003, vol. 38, pp. 585–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berzina, A.N., Sotnikov, V.I., Ekonomou-Eliopoulos, M., et al., Distribution of Rhenium in Molybdenite from Porphyry Cu-Mo and Mo-Cu Deposits of Russia (Siberia) and Mongolia, Ore Geol. Rev., 2005, vol. 26, pp. 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dushin, V.A., Kuznetsov, V.I., and Grigor’ev, V.V., Estimation of Prospectivity and Localization Conditions of New and Nontraditional Mineral Resources in the Northern Urals, in Polyarnyi Ural-novaya mineral’no-syr’evaya baza Rossii (The Polar Urals As a New Source of Mineral Commodities in Russia), Tyumen: TGU, 1997, pp. 68–79.Google Scholar
  4. Fershtater, G.B., Krasnobaev, A.A., and Borodina, N.S., The Famennian (365–355 Ma) Magmatism of the Ural Epioceanic Orogen: New data on Evolution, Geochemistry, and Isotopic Composition, Litosfera, 2011, no. 2, pp. 53–67.Google Scholar
  5. Filimonova, L.E., Zhukov, N.M., and Malyavskaya, A.T., Genetic Aspects of Polytypism and Rhenium Contents of Molybdenites from Porphyry Copper Deposits, Geokhimiya, 1984, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1040–1046.Google Scholar
  6. Giles, D.L. and Shilling, J.H., Variation in Rhenium Content of Molybdenite, in Proc. IGC 24th Session, Section 10, Monreal, 1972, pp. 145–152.Google Scholar
  7. Grabezhev, A.I., Skarns of the Gumeshevo Skarn-Porphyry Copper Deposit, Central Urals, Petrology, 2004, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 149–162.Google Scholar
  8. Grabezhev, A.I., Rhenium in Ores of Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Urals, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2007, vol. 413, no. 2, pp. 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grabezhev, A.I., Sr-Nd-C-O-H-S Isoptopic Characterization of Porphyry Copper Fluid-Magmatic Systems of the South Urals: Probable Sources of Matter, Litosfera, 2009, no. 6, pp. 66–89.Google Scholar
  10. Grabezhev, A.I. and Belgorodskiy, E.A., Produktivnye granitoidy i metasomatity medno-porfirovykh mestorozhdenii (Procuctive Granitoids and Metasomatic Rocks of Porphyry Copper Deposits), Yekaterinburg: Inst. Geol. Geochem., 1992.Google Scholar
  11. Grabezhev, A.I., Rusinova, O.V., Zhukhlistov, A.P., et al., Vertical Ore-Metasomatic Zoning of the Tomino Porphyry Copper Ore Cluster, Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., 1995, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 500–510.Google Scholar
  12. Grabezhev, A.I. and Shagalov, E.S., Rhenium Distribution in Molybdenite: Results of Microprobe Scanning (Copper Porphyry Deposits, the Urals), Dokl. Earth Sci., 2010, vol. 431, no. 1, pp. 351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grabezhev, A.I., Sotnikov, V.I., Belgorodsky, E.A., et al., Acid Leaching in Skarn Copper Porphyry Systems: The Tarutinsk Deposit, Southern Urals, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2004, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 441–453.Google Scholar
  14. Herrington, R.J., Zaikov, V.V., Maslennikov, V.V., et al., 2010. Mineral Deposits of the Urals and Links to Geodynamic Evolution, Econ. Geol., 2005, One Hundredth Anniversary Volume, pp. 1069–1095.Google Scholar
  15. Hollister, V.F., An Appraisal of the Nature of Some Porphyry Copper Deposits, Mineral. Sci. Engineering, 1975, vol. 7, pp. 225–233.Google Scholar
  16. Ivanov, V.V., Poplavko, E.M., and Gorokhova, V.N., Geokhimiya reniya (Geochemistry of Rhenium), Moscow: Nauka, 1969.Google Scholar
  17. Korzhinsky, D.S., Essay of Metasomatic Processes, in Osnovnye problemy v uchenii o magmatogennykh rudnykh mestorozhdeniyakh (Main Problems in the Science on Magmatic Ore Deposits), Moscow: USSR Acad. Sci., 1953, pp. 333–456.Google Scholar
  18. Kovalenker, V.A., Kiseleva, G.D., Krylova, T.L., and Andreeva, O.V., Mineralogy and Ore Formation Conditions of the Bugdaya Au-Bearing W-Mo Porphyry Deposit, Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2011, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 93–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krivtsov, A.I., Geologicheskie osnovy prognozirovaniya I poiskov medno-porfirovykh mestorozhdenii (Geological Principles of Forecasting and Prospecting of Porphyry Copper Deposits), Moscow: Nedra, 1983.Google Scholar
  20. Kulikova, I.M., Nabelkin, O.A., and Maksimyuk, I.E., Microprobe Study of Re-Bearing Minerals, in Teoreticheskie i obshchemetodicheskie voprosy rentgenospektral’nogo analiza (Theory and Technique of X-Ray Spectroscopy), Novosibirsk: Inst. Geol. Mineral., 2011, p. 61.Google Scholar
  21. Mao Jingwen, Zhang Zhaochong, Zhang Zouheng, and Du Andao., Re-Os Isotopic Dating of Molybdenites in the Xiaoliugou W (Mo) Deposit in the Northern Qilian Mountains and Its Geological Significance, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1999, vol. 63, pp. 1815–1818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mathur, R., Ruiz, J., and Munizaga, F., Relationship between Copper Tonnage of Chilean Base-Metal Porphyry Deposits and Os Isotope Ratios, Geology, 2000, vol. 28, pp. 555–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ovchinnikov, L.N., Poleznye iskopaemye i metallogeniya Urala (Mineral Resources and Metallogeny of the Urals), Moscow: Geoinformmark, 1998.Google Scholar
  24. Plotinskaya, O.Yu., Groznova, E.O., Kovalenker, V.A., et al., Mineralogy and Formation Conditions of Ores in the Bereznyakovskoe Ore Field, the Southern Urals, Russia, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2009, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 371–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Popov, V.S., Geologiya i genezis medno-i molibden-porfirovykh mestorozhdenii (Geology and Genesis of Porphyry Copper and Molybdenum Deposits), Moscow: Nauka, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Popov, V.S. and Kudryavtsev, Yu.K., Re Content in Molybdenite As a Criterion of Estimation of Molybdenum Deposits molibdenovykh mestorozhdenii, Razved. Okhr. Nedr, 1995, no. 6, pp. 17–20.Google Scholar
  27. Puchkov, V.N., Overview of the Ural Minerageny, in Problemy geologii i mineralogii (Problems of Geologe and Mineralogy), Syktyvkvar: Geoprint, 2006, pp. 195–222.Google Scholar
  28. Puchkov, V.N., Geologiya Urala i Priural’ya (Geology of the Urals and Foreurals), Ufa: Inst. Geol., 2010.Google Scholar
  29. Rekharsky, V.I., Savel’eva, L.V., and Lange, E.K., Behavior of Rhenium in Ore Formation, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1983, no. 7, pp. 1040–1046.Google Scholar
  30. Rundquist, D.V., Time Factor in the Formation of Hydrothermal Deposits: Periods, Epochs, Megastages, and Stages of Ore Formation, Geol. Ore Deposits, 1997, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 8–19.Google Scholar
  31. Salikhov, D.N., Maslennikov, V.V., Seravkin, I.B., et al., Poleznye iskopaemye respubliki Bashkortostan (rudy Cu, Zn, Pb) (Mineral Resources of the Bashkortostan Republic: Cu, Zn, and Pb Ores), Ufa: Gilem, 2010.Google Scholar
  32. Seravkin, I.B., Minibaeva, K.V., and Rodicheva, Z.I., Porphyry Copper Mineralization of the South Urals: A Review, Geol. Sbornik,, 2011, no. 9, pp. 186–200.Google Scholar
  33. Shargorodsky, B.M., Novikov, I.M., and Aksenov, S.A., The Mikheevsky Porphyry Copper Deposit in the Southern Urals, Otech. Geol., 2005, no. 2, pp. 57–61.Google Scholar
  34. Stein, H.J., Markey, R.J., Morgan, J.W., et al., The Remarkable Re-Os Chronometer in Molybdenite: How and Why It Works, Terra Nova, 2001, vol. 13, pp. 479–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sun, W., Arculus, R.J., Bennett, V.C., et al., Evidence of Rhenium Enrichment in the Mantle Wedge from Submarine Arc-Like Volcanic Glasses (Papua New Guinea), Geology, 2003, vol. 31, pp. 845–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tessalina, S.G., Yudovskaya, M.A., Chaplygin, I.V., et al., Sources of Unique Rhenium Enrichment in Fumaroles and Sulphides at Kudryavy Volcano, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2008, vol. 72, pp. 889–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trach, G.N. and Beskin, S.M., Rhenium Resource Potential in the Territory of Russia, Razved. Okhr. Nedr, 2011, no. 6, pp. 26–31.Google Scholar
  38. Volkov, A.V., Savva, N.E., Sidorov, A.A., et al., Spatial Distribution and Formation Conditions of Au-Bearing Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposits in the Northeast of Russia, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2006, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 448–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Voudouris, P.C., Melfos, V., Spry, P.G., et al., Rhenium-Rich Molybdenite and Rhenite in the Pagoni Rachi Mo-Cu-Te-Ag-Au Prospect, Northern Greece: Implication for the Re Geochemistry of Porphyry-Style Cu-Mo and Mo Mineralization, Can. Mineral. 2009, vol. 47, pp. 1013–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xiong, Y., Hydrothermal Transport and Deposition of Rhenium under Subcritical Conditions Revisited, Econ. Geol., 2006, vol. 101, pp. 471–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yatsimirsky, K.B., Kineticheskie metody analiza (Kinetic Analytical Methods), Moscow: Khimiya, 1967.Google Scholar
  42. Zoloev, K.K., Levin, V.Ya., Mormil, S.I., and Shardakova, G.Yu., Minerageniya i mestorozhdeniya redkikh metallov, molibdena, vol’frama Urala (Rare-Metal, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Minerageny and Deposits of the Urals), Yekaterinburg: Uralgeolcom, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural BranchRussian Academy of SciencesYekaterinburgRussia

Personalised recommendations