Assessment of the Effects of Silene roemeri and Silene sendtneri Ethanol Extracts on Human Monocytes/Macrophages


Immunomodulatory and immunocorrective therapies are important approaches to foster immunity. Biologically active substances (BAS) of plants, exhibiting a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity, can act as agents mobilizing the immune system. Plants belonging to the Caryophyllaceae family, including Silene sendtneri and S. roemeri, are rich in ecdysteroids and flavonoids, the compounds characterized by a large variety of biological activities with potential impact on the human immune system. In this study, the effect of native and chlorophyll-free plant extracts of S. sendtneri and S. roemeri on human monocyte-derived macrophages was examined. The production of cytokines was assessed using ELISA. Gene expression microarrays and RT-qPCR analysis were used to determine differentially expressed genes under the influence of the extracts. The results of the experiments showed that the extracts increased production of an M2-associated chemokine CCL-18 in macrophages. In addition, they induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). The identified activity was detected both in native and chlorophyll-free extracts. Furthermore, plant extracts of S. sendtneri and S. roemeri influenced the expression of the CCL2, MMP9, VEGFA, and S100A9 genes in human macrophages. Overall, extracts of the Silene genus plants showed immunomodulatory effects by influencing macrophage activation in vitro.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1.


  1. 1

    Italiani, P. and Boraschi, D., Front. Immunol., 2014, vol. 5, p. 514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Brown, B.N., Ratner, B.D., Goodman, S.B., Amar, S., and Badylak, S.F., Biomaterials, 2012, no. 33, pp. 3792–3802.

  3. 3

    Freidlin, I.S. and Totolyan, A.A., Kletki immunnoi sistemy (Immune System Cells), in 2 vols., vol 2: Monotsity (Monocytes), St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2000. ISBN 5-02-026131-9.

  4. 4

    Zibareva, L., Yeriomina, V.I., Munkhjargal, N., Girault, J-P., Dinan, L., and Lafont, R., Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 2009, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 234–248.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Abubakirov, N.K., Khim. Prir. Soed., 1981. no. 6. pp. 685–702.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Zibareva, L.N., Aliev, O.I., Koltunov, A.A., and Plotnikov, M.B., Hemorheological agent, RF Patent no. 2160592, Byul. Izobret., 2000, no. 35.

  7. 7

    Zibareva, L., Volodin, V., Saatov, Z., Savchenko, T., Whiting, P., Lafont, R., and Dinan, L., Phytochemistry, 2003, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 499–517.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Kim, H.P., Son, K.H., Chang, H.W., and Kang, S.S., J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2004, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 229–245.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Darmograi, S.V., Fursa, N.S., and Erofeeva, N.S., Ross. Med.-Biol. Vestn. im. Akad. I.P. Pavlova, 2013, no. 1, pp. 123–132.

  10. 10

    Smolyakova, I.M., Kalinkina, G.I., Berezovskaya, T.P., Dmitruk, S.E., Zibareva, L.N., and Sviridova, T.P., Farmatsiya, 2004, no. 5, pp. 20–22.

  11. 11

    Zibareva, L.N., Fitoekdisteroidy rastenii semeistva Caryophyllaceae (Phytoecdysteroids of Plants of the Family Caryophyllaceae), Saarbryukken: Lambert Acad. Publ., GmbH&Co, 2012. ISBN 978-3-8473-1785-2.

  12. 12

    Krylova, S.G., Zueva, E.P., Zibareva, L.N., Amosova, E.N., and Razina, T.G., Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 2014, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 225–228.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Chandra, S. and Rawat, D.S., Integr. Med. Res., 2015, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 123–131.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Asha, V.V., Nair, S.A., Sasidharan, S.P., Sureshkumar, P.K., Rajendran, K.N., Karunagaran, D., and Ramalingam, K., Inflammation, 2012, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 959–966.

  15. 15

    Park, S., Choi, J.J., Park, B-K., Yoon, S.J., Choi, J.E., and Jin, M., Life Sci., 2014, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 59–67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    GeneCards®: The Human Gene Database.

  17. 17

    Kzhyshkowska, J., Gratchev, A., Martens, J.H., Pervushina, O., Mamidi, S., Johansson, S., Schledzewski, K., Hansen, B., He, X., Tang, J., Nakayama, K., and Goerdt, S., J. Leukocyte Biol., 2004, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1151–1161.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to V. Ryabov and A. Gudima (Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immunology, Mannheim, Germany); Yu.G. Kzhyshkowska, Head of the Department of Innate Immunity and Tolerance; as well as M. Muciek and C. De La Torre, technical assistants, and Dr. C. Sticht, Medical Research Center of the Medicine Faculty, Mannheim, for assistance in statistical analysis of the microarray data.


The work was supported by the Tomsk State University Competitiveness Improvement Program, 2013–2020. The work was performed in frames of the State Task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, project no. 37.7810.2017/8.9.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. S. Filonenko.

Ethics declarations

The work has no studies involving humans or animals as subjects of the study.

Conflict of Interests

Authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Translated by N. Onishchenko

Abbreviations: BAS, biologically active substances; real-time RT-qPCR, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; M, macrophages; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; INF-γ, interferon γ; IL, interleukin; CCL, C-C motif ligand, a chemokine.

Corresponding authors: phone: +7 (3822) 529-724; e-mail:

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Filonenko, E.S., Zibareva, L.N. Assessment of the Effects of Silene roemeri and Silene sendtneri Ethanol Extracts on Human Monocytes/Macrophages. Russ J Bioorg Chem 46, 334–341 (2020).

Download citation


  • Silene
  • Caryophyllaceae
  • macrophages
  • proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines