Communities of Soil Invertebrates near Iska-Shor Hydrogen Sulfide Springs in the Adak Nature Reserve (Komi Republic)


The results are presented of studies on soil invertebrate communities (nematodes, springtails, and large invertebrates) in shore ecosystems near hydrogen sulfide springs in the valley of the Iska-Shor stream in the Adak reserve and along river valleys at the northern boundary of the taiga zone of the Komi Republic. The taxonomic richness of the studied invertebrate groups does not change between the sampling plots. The total abundance and the abundance of individual trophic groups of springtails and large soil invertebrates decrease in plant communities near the outlet of sulfide waters, but the structure of these groups remains similar between the plots. On the contrary, the structure of nematode complexes differs between the ecosystems of the river valleys and near the hydrogen sulfide springs, where the abundance of mycotrophs increases.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.


  1. 1

    Biologicheskoe raznoobrazie osobo okhranyaemykh prirodnykh territorii Respubliki Komi (Biological Diversity in Specially Protected Natural Areas of the Komi Republic), vol. 8: Kompleksnyi landshaftnyi zakaznik “Adak” (The Adak Complex Landscape Reserve), Degteva, S.V. and Lapteva, E.M., Eds., Syktyvkar: Komi Nauch. Tsentr Ural. Otd. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2015.

  2. 2

    Mityusheva, T.P., Iska-Shor (Adak) hydrogen sulfide springs, in Izuchenie, sokhranenie i ispol’zovanie ob"ektov geologicheskogo naslediya severnykh regionov (Respublika Komi): Mat-ly nauch.-praktich. konf. (The Study, Conservation, and Management of the Objects of Geological Heritage in Northern Regions (the Komi Republic): Proc. Sci.-Pract. Conf.), Syktyvkar: Inst. Geol., Komi Nauch. Tsentr, Ural. Otd. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2007, pp. 94–96.

  3. 3

    Rozanov, A.S., Bryanskaya, A.V., Ivanisenko, T.V., et al., Biodiversity of the microbial mat of the Garga hot spring, BMC Evol. Biol., 2017, vol. 17, Suppl . 2, pp. 37−49.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Loskutova, O.A., Kononova, O.N., Kondrat’eva, T.A., et al., Invertebrate communities of hydrogen sulfide springs in the Far North (the Usa River basin, Russia), Tr. Karel. Nauch. Tsentra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2020, no. 1, pp. 71–86.

  5. 5

    Plum, N., Terrestrial invertebrates in flooded grassland: A literature review, Wetlands, 2005, vol. 25, pp. 721–737.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Cantonati, M., Stevens, L.E., Segadelli, S., et al., Ecohydrogeology: The interdisciplinary convergence needed to improve the study and stewardship of springs and other groundwater-dependent habitats, biota, and ecosystems, Ecol. Indic., 2020, vol. 110, 105803.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Bendera, S.F., Widmer, F., and van der Heijdena, M.G.A., Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. A., 2014, vol. 111, no. 14, pp. 5266–5270.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Hoogen, J., Geisen, S., Routh, D., et al., Soil nematode abundance and functional group composition at a global scale, Nature, 2019, vol. 572, pp. 194–198.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Tahseen, Q., Nematodes in aquatic environments: Adaptations and survival strategies, Biodivers. J., 2012, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–40.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Behan-Pelletier, V.M., Acari and Collembola biodiversity in Canadian agricultural soils, Can. J. Soil Sci., 2002, vol. 83, pp. 279–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Nielsen, U.N., Osler, G.H.R., Campbell, C.D., et al., The influence of vegetation type, soil properties and precipitation on the composition of soil mite and microbial communities at the landscape scale, J. Biogeogr., 2010, vol. 37, pp. 1317–1328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Hopkin, S.P., Biology of Springtails (Insecta: Collembola), New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Phillips, H.R.P., Guerra, C.A., Bartz, M.L.C., et al., Global distribution of earthworm diversity, Science, 2019, vol. 366, pp. 480–485.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Berg, M.P. and Bengtsson, J., Temporal and spatial variability in soil food web structure, Oikos, 2007, vol. 116, pp. 1789–1804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Lehmitz, R., Haase, H., Otte, V., and Russell, D., Bioindication in peatlands by means of multi-taxa indicators (Oribatida, Araneae, Carabidae, vegetation), Ecol. Indic., 2020, vol. 109, 105837.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Kolichestvennye metody v pochvennoi zoologii (Quantitative Methods in Soil Zoology), Byzova, Yu.B., Gilyarov, M.S., Dunger, V., , Eds., Moscow: Nauka, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Yeates, G.W., Bongers, T., de Goede, R.G.M., et al., Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera: An outline for soil ecologists, J. Nematol., 1993, vol. 25, pp. 315–331.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Bongers, T., The maturity index, an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition, Oecologia, 1990, vol. 83, pp. 14–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Stebaeva, S.K., Life forms of springtails (Collembola), Zool. Zh., 1970, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1437-1455.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Potapov, A.A., Semenina, E.E., Korotkevich, A.Y., et al., Connecting taxonomy and ecology: Trophic niches of collembolans as related to taxonomic identity and life forms, Soil Biol. Biochem., 2016, vol. 101, pp. 20–31.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Metody issledovaniya struktury, funktsionirovaniya i raznoobraziya detritnykh pishchevykh setei. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo (Methods for Studying the Structure, Functioning, and Biodiversity of Detrital Food Webs: Methodological Guidelines), Pokarzhevskii, A.D., Zaitsev, A.S., Gongalsky, K.B., Eds., Moscow: IPEE, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Kozlov, M.V., Pseudoreplication in ecological research: The overlooked by Russian scientists, Zool. Zh., 2003, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 292–307.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Kuznetsova, N.A., Collembola in extreme natural and anthropogenic conditions: A case study of collembolan taxocoenoses, in Species and Communities in Extreme Environments, Golovatch, S.I., Makarova, O.L., Babenko, A.B., and Penev, L.D., Eds., Sofia: Pensoft; Moscow: KMK, 2009.

  24. 24

    van der Wal, A., Geerts, R.H.E.M., Korevaar, H., et al., Dissimilar response of plant and soil biota communities to long-term nutrient addition in grasslands, Biol. Fertil. Soils, 2009, vol. 45, pp. 663–670.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Sabais, A.C.W., Scheu, S., and Eisenhauer, N., Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland, Acta Oecol., 2011, vol. 37, pp. 195–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Krab, E.J., Oorsprong, H., Berg, M.P., and Cornelissen, J.H., Turning northern peatlands upside down: Disentangling microclimate and substrate quality effects on vertical distribution of Collembola, Funct. Ecol., 2010, vol. 24, pp. 1362–1369.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Endlweber, K., Ruess, L., and Scheu, S., Collembola switch diet in presence of plant roots thereby functioning as herbivores, Soil Biol. Biochem., 2009, vol. 41, pp. 1151–1154.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Korobushkin, D.I., Korotkevich, A.Y., Kolesnikova, A.A., et al., Consumption of aquatic subsidies by soil invertebrates in coastal ecosystems, Contemp. Probl. Ecol., 2016, vol. 9, pp. 396–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Hoekman, D., Bartrons, M., and Gratton, C., Ecosystems linkages revealed by experimental lake-derived isotope signal in heathland food webs, Oecologia, 2012, vol. 71, pp. 832–845.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Rybalov, L.B. and Kamaev, I.O., Diversity of soil mesofauna in northern taiga biogeocenosises of the Kamennaya River basin (Karelia), Biol. Bull., 2011, vol. 38, pp. 338–347.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Wardle, D.A., Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components, Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Lavelle, P. and Spain, A., Soil Ecology, Berlin: Springer, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Ferris, H., Bongers, T., and de Goede, R.G.M., A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis concept, Appl. Soil Ecol., 2001, vol. 18, pp. 13–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Ferris, H. and Matute, M.M., Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web, Appl. Soil Ecol., 2003, vol. 23, pp. 93–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Freckman, D.W. and Ettema, C.H., Assessing nematode communities in agro-ecosystems of varying human intervention, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 1993, vol. 45, pp. 239–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to members of the Ecoanalytical Laboratory for the chemical analysis of soils, as well as to the anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on the content of the paper.


This study was supported by the program of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Biodiversity of Invertebrates in Extreme Climatic Conditions of the Subarctic (the Urals and Adjacent Areas)” (no. AAAA-A18-118011390005) and by state assignment topic “Distribution, Systematics, and Spatial Organization of the Fauna and Population of Terrestrial and Aquatic Animals of Taiga and Tundra Ecosystems in the European Northeast of Russia” (no. AAAA-A17-117112850235-2).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. A. Taskaeva.

Additional information

Translated by D. Zabolotny

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Taskaeva, A.A., Konakova, T.N., Kolesnikova, A.A. et al. Communities of Soil Invertebrates near Iska-Shor Hydrogen Sulfide Springs in the Adak Nature Reserve (Komi Republic). Russ J Ecol 52, 76–83 (2021).

Download citation


  • nematodes
  • springtails
  • large soil invertebrates
  • coastal habitats
  • Adak Nature Reserve
  • Komi Republic