Dynamics of Trophic Activity of Leaf-Eating Insects on Birch during Reduction of Emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter
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The trophic activity of birch leaf-eating insects in background and impact (highly polluted) sites near the Middle Ural Copper Smelter has been recorded in 2008–2015. Reduction of emissions leads to a significant decrease in the concentration of heavy metals in birch leaves, and the existing differences in the proportion of damaged leaves between the background and impact sites are leveling off. An increasing temporal trend in foliar damage at the impact site confirms that the trophic activity of leaf-eating insects is being recovered following reduction of toxic load, and the remaining differences from the background territory indicate that this process is still continuing.
Keywordsfoliar damage phytophages invertebrates insects Betula industrial pollution heavy metals recovery sustainability monitoring
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