Biology Bulletin

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 82–90 | Cite as

Effect of the Spatial Orientation of a Substrate on the Formation of Early Fouling Communities in the White Sea

  • V. V. Khalaman
  • N. S. Golubovskaya
  • A. Yu. Komendantov
  • S. S. Malavenda
  • T. A. Mikhaylova


The formation of early fouling communities developing under different spatial orientations of substrates and various lighting conditions was studied during a field experiment. The algal predominance on the sunlit upward-oriented sides and the animal predominance on the shaded downward-oriented sides are the consequence of two processes: (1) competitive displacement of animals from the sunlit sides by algae; (2) preferential colonization of the shaded downward-oriented sides of the substrates by animals.


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. V. Khalaman
    • 1
  • N. S. Golubovskaya
    • 2
  • A. Yu. Komendantov
    • 1
  • S. S. Malavenda
    • 2
  • T. A. Mikhaylova
    • 3
  1. 1.Zoological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Murmansk State Technological UniversityMurmanskRussia
  3. 3.Komarov Botanical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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