Multi-residue determination of organochlorine pesticides in vegetables in Kirklareli, Turkey by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
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The aim of this study was to investigate the level of organochlorine pesticides use for treatment of tomatoes, eggplants and cucumbers in Kirklareli, Turkey. Eighteen organochlorine pesticides were identified in vegetable samples using microwave or Soxhlet extraction, and results were obtained by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The optimized conditions were 1 mL/min for flow rate in the mobile phase, 1 μL for injection volume and 70 V for fragmentation potential. The analytical parameters show that the microwave oven extraction procedure provided the best results when compared to the Soxhlet extraction procedure. Samples were prepared for analysis with hexane‒dichlormethane (1: 1, v/v, 40 mL) using a solid-phase extraction method. The limits of detection and quantitation for the eighteen analytes were between 0.02–0.26 and 0.06–0.87 μg/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviations of the migration time ranged from 2.4 to 8.9%. The recoveries of surrogate spiked in vegetable samples ranged from 70 to 116%, respectively. The obtained concentrations of pesticides in all vegetables studied were proved in the range of ND–123 μg/kg. The organochlorine pesticide sum was below the legal limit, except for Endrin and Methoxychlor, which requires a further elucidation of the organochlorine pesticides pollution sources in the region. These studies on accumulation of organochlorine pesticides were necessary for accomplishing a comprehensive ecological risk assessment.
Keywordsorganochlorine pesticides Soxhlet and microwave extraction tomato eggplant cucumber
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