Zinc oxide nanoparticles-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitrate ions in water with a low detection limit—a chemometric approach
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We report for the first time a cyclic voltammetric nitrate sensor with a low detection limit based on the immobilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the surface of the platinum working electrode using chitosan membrane. Cyclic voltammetric data demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles can electrochemically reduce nitrate ions to ammonium ions with high conductivity. In order to estimate electroanalytical parameters for each of the nitrate concentrations, Gaussian and Lorentzian curve fitting algorithms were performed on cyclic voltammetric data. Among them, the best analytical performance results were obtained with Gaussian calibration linear model. The zinc oxide modified platinum electrode showed a linear response to nitrate ions over a concentration range from 0.1 to 2.0 mM with a low detection limit and high sensitivity of 10 nM and 39.91 μA/cm2 mM, respectively. The nitrate ion concentrations in drinking water samples were determined using Gaussian calibration linear model and the predicted, added nitrate ion concentration values showed good correlation.
Keywordsnitrate Gaussian function Lorentzian function ZnO cyclic voltammetry chemometrics
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