In the current scenario, self-healing nature of an aluminium based composites is an important aspect to be explored. Due to the weldability limitations in nonferrous metals, an attempt to explore the self-healing characteristics in Al alloys was performed. AA2014 reinforced with Ni–Ti wires with different input levels was considered for parametric study. The primarily objective of this research work is to determine the input responses influencing self-healing nature assessments. Specimens with different Shape memory alloy (SMA) vol %, specimen size and SMA wire diameter were fabricated for analysis. Further, Taguchi orthogonal columns of L8 (4^1 2^3) array technique was implemented to study the observations from different experimental runs. Healing temperature (i.e., 600°C) was such selected that it could take the advantage of compositional healing of the matrix. The yield point damaged specimens through bend test were thermally treated at different healing durations in a furnace to activate healing. Through destructive and nondestructive evaluation (subsurface defects) results shows that a maximum of 81.01% of recovery in crack width, recovery in ductility to about 32.61%, 74.86% of recovery in crack depth, and 44.18% of recovery in flexural strength was obtained after healing. Healing duration plays a significant role in controlling the recovery of mechanical and healing properties of the composites. It was observed that to attain higher mechanical properties (i.e., flexural strength and ductility) moderate healing duration is favorable. Whereas, for healing properties (i.e., crack width and crack depth) exposing to higher healing duration is preferred for higher recovery in damaged crack width and crack depth.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rambabu, P., Prasad, N., Kutumbarao, V., and Wanhill, R., aluminium alloys for aerospace applications, in Aerospace Materials and Material Technologies, Rambabu, P. and Prasad, N., Eds., Ind. Inst. Metals Ser., Singapore: Springer, 2017, pp. 29–52.
Heinz, A., Haszler, A., Keidel, C., Moldenhauer, S., Benedictus, R., and Miller, W., Recent development in aluminium alloys for aerospace applications, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2000, vol. 280, no. 1, pp. 102–107.
Alfieria, V., Caiazzoa, F., and Sergi, V., Autogenous laser welding of AA 2024 aluminium alloy: Process issues and bead features, Procedia CIRP, 2015, vol. 33, pp. 406–411.
Lancaster, J., Metallurgy of Welding, New York: Woodhead Publishing, 1999, 6th ed.
Manuel, M., Principles of self-healing in metals and alloys: an introduction, in Self-healing Materials: Fundamentals, Design Strategies, and Applications, Ghosh, S., Ed., Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2008, pp. 251-265.
Das, R., Melchior, C., and Karumbaiah, K., Self-healing composites for aerospace applications, in Advanced Composite Materials for Aerospace Engineering, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, pp. 333–364.
Mandal, N., Joint design and edge preparation, in Aluminium Welding, Mandal, N., Ed., Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, 2002.
Blaiszik, B., Kramer, S., Olugebefola, S., Moore, J., Sottos, N., and White, S., Self-healing polymers and composites, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 2010, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 179–211.
Moghadam, A., Schultz, B., Ferguson, J., Omrani, E., Rohatgi, P., and Gupta, N., Functional metal matrix composites: Self-lubricating, self-healing, and nanocomposites-an outlook, JOM, 2014, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 872–881.
Nosonovsky, M. and Rohatgi, P., Development of metallic and metal matrix composite, in Biomimetics in Materials Science: Self-Healing, Self-Lubricating,and Self-Cleaning Materials, Hull, R., Jagadish, C., Osgood, R., Parisi, J., and Wang, Z., Eds. New York: Springer, 2012, pp. 87–122.
Ferguson, J., Schultz, B., and Rohatgi, P., Self-healing metals and metal matrix composites, JOM, 2014, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 866–871.
Alaneme, K. and Bodunrin, M., Self-healing using metallic material systems – A review, Appl. Mater. Today, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 9–15.
Wang, Y., Pham, D., and Ji, C., Self-healing composites: A review, Cogent Eng., 2015, vol. 2, no. 1.
Srivastava, V. and Gupta, M., Approach to self-healing in metal matrix composites: A review, Mater. Today: Proc., 2018, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 19703–19713.
Manuel, M. and Olson, G., Biomimetic self-healing metals, in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Self-Healing Mater. (Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2007).
Manuel, M., Design of a biomimetic self-healing alloy composite, Doctorate Philos. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2007.
Rohatgi, P., Al-shape memory alloy self-healing metal matrix composite, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2014, vol. 619, pp. 73–76.
Ferguson, J., Schultz, B., and Rohatgi, P., Zinc alloy ZA-8/shape memory alloy self-healing metal matrix composite, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, vol. 620, pp. 85–88.
Clara Wright, M., Manuel, M., and Wallace, T., Fatigue resistance of liquid-assisted self-repairing aluminum alloys reinforced with shape memory alloys shape memory alloy: Self-healing (SMASH) technology for aeronautical applications, Nari.arc.nasa.gov, 2013.
Poormir, M., Khalili, S., and Eslami-Farsani, R., Investigation of the self-healing behavior of Sn-Bi metal matrix composite reinforced with NiTi shape memory alloy strips under flexural loading, JOM, 2018, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 806–810.
Poormir, M., Khalili, S., and Eslami-Farsani, R., Optimal design of a bio-inspired self-healing metal matrix composite reinforced with NiTi shape memory alloy strips, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 2018, vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 3972–3982.
Burke, S., Crack depth measurement using eddy current NDE, Nondestr. Aust., 2002, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 18–22.
Srivastava, V. and Gupta, M., Impact of post hardening mechanism on self-healing assessment of AA2014 Nitinol-based smart composites, Metals Mater. Int., 2020.
Cullity, B., Structure of polycrystalline aggregates, in Structure of Polycrystalline Aggregates, Cullity, B., Ed., Philippines: Addison-Wesley, 2020, pp. 281–321.
Kumar, P. and Lagoudas, D., in Introduction to Shape Memory Alloys, Lagoudas, D., Ed., Boston, MA: Springer, 2008, pp. 1–51.
Khalili, S. and Saeedi, A., Experimental investigation on the debonding strength in shape memory alloy wire reinforced polymers, Mech. Adv. Mater. Struct., 2017, vol. 26, pp. 490–495.
Misra, S., Shape memory alloy reinforced self-healing metal matrix composites, Master Sci. Dissertation, Univ. Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2013.
I would like to thank Advanced Center for Materials Science and Material Science Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India for extending the facilities for conducting SEM (Imaging). I would be thankful to Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, India for performing XRD analysis. I am grateful to the Director, Gulachi Engineers Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad, India for providing eddy current test facility for nondestructive testing.
About this article
Cite this article
Vaibhav Srivastava, Manish Gupta Parametric Assessments of Self-Healing Characteristics in AA2014–NiTi-Based Metallic Composites through Destructive and Nondestructive Evaluation. Russ J Nondestruct Test 56, 1064–1082 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1061830920120104
- structural composites
- self-healing metals
- Taguchi method
- eddy current testing
- shape memory alloy