Increasing the Rate of Recording Echo Signals with an Ultrasonic Antenna Array Using Code Division Multiple Access Technology

Abstract

The disadvantage of using the digital focusing with an antenna (DFA) method to produce an image of reflectors is a large volume of echo signals and an insufficiently high speed of their recording. We propose to increase this speed by simultaneously emitting probing signals by all elements of an antenna array (AA), formed according to the sets of code sequences used in the code division multiple access (CDMA) technology. The measured echo signals can be decoded using matched filtering (MF) and the reflectors can be reconstructed using the combined SAFT (C-SAFT) method. The image can be reconstructed without decoding the measured echo signals using the ME method. The proposed technology was tested to obtain images of reflectors in samples of duralumin, steel 20, and steel 40.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 11.

REFERENCES

  1. 1

    Advances in Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Applications, Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT, 2007. http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/books. Cited February 5, 2019.

  2. 2

    Voronkov, V.A., Voronkov, I.V., Kozlov, V.N., Samokrutov, A.A., and Shevaldykin, V.G., On the applicability of antenna array technology in ultrasonic testing of hazardous production facilities, V Mire NK, 2011, no. 1, pp. 64–70.

  3. 3

    Bazulin, E.G., Comparison of systems for ultrasonic nondestructive testing using antenna arrays or phased antenna arrays, Russ. J. Nondestr. Test., 2013, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 404–423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, C., Jiménez, A., Martín-Arguedas, C.J., Ureña, J., and Hernández, A., A novel encoded excitation scheme in a phased array for the improving data acquisition rate, Sensors, 2014, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 549–563.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Kovalev, A.V., Kozlov, V.N., Samokrutov, A.A., Shevaldykin, V.G., and Yakovlev, N.N., Pulse echo method for testing concrete. Interference and spatial selection, Defektoskopiya, 1990, no. 2, pp. 29–41.

  6. 6

    Bazulin, E.G., Utilization of double scanning in ultrasonic testing to improve the quality of the scatterer images, Acoust. Phys., 2001, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 649–653.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Chatillon, S., Fidahoussen, A., Iakovleva, E., and Calmon, P., Time of flight inverse matching reconstruction of ultrasonic array data exploiting forwards models, NDT Natl. Conf. (Canada, August 25—27, 2009).

  8. 8

    Bolotina, I., Dennis, M., Mohr, F., Kröning, M., Reddy, K.M., and Zhantlessov, Y., 3D Ultrasonic imaging by cone scans and acoustic antennas, 18th World Conf. Nondestr. Test. (Durban, South Africa, April 16—20, 2012), Durban. South Africa.

  9. 9

    Bazulin, E.G., Reconstruction of reflector images using the C-SAFT method with account for the anisotropy of the material of the test object, Russ. J. Nondestr. Test., 2015, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 217–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    “AKS”: the official company website. http://www.acsys.ru/production/detail/a1550-introvisor. Cited December 15, 2019.

  11. 11

    Bazulin, A.E., Bazulin, E.G., Butov, A.V., Vopilkin, A.Kh., and Tikhonov, D.S., RF Patent no. RU 2 649 028 C1. IPC G01N 29/44. Transceiver [Text], Byull. Izobret., 2018, no. 8. Application date December 29, 2016.

  12. 12

    Jeune, L., Imagerie ultrasonore par emission d’ondes planes pour le contrôle de structures complexes en immersion, Pour l’obtention du grade de Docteur de l’université Paris-Diderot, Paris, 2016.

  13. 13

    Kasami, T., Weight distribution formula for some class of cyclic codes, Tech. Rep. no. R-285, Univ. Illinois, 1966.

  14. 14

    Gold, R., Optimal binary sequences for spread spectrum multiplexing, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, October 1967, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 619–621. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.1967.1054048

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    de Bruijn, N.G., A combinatorial problem, in Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie v. Wetenschappen, 1946, vol. 49, pp. 758–764.

  16. 16

    Chu, D.C., Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, July 1972, pp. 531–532. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.1972.1054840

  17. 17

    Varakin, L.E., Sistemy svyazi s shumopodobnymi signalami (Communication Systems with Noise-Like Signals), Moscow: Radio i Svyaz’, 1985.

  18. 18

    Bazulin, A.E. and Bazulin, E.G., Deconvolution of complex echo signals by the maximum entropy method in ultrasonic nondestructive inspection, Acoust. Phys., 2009 vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 772–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Smith, P.F. and Player, M.A., Deconvolution of bipolar ultrasonic signals using a modified maximum entropy method, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys., 1991, vol. 24, pp. 1714–1721.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Kachanov, V.K., Kartashev, V.G., Sokolov, I.V., and Shalimov, E.V., Metody obrabotki signalov v ul’trazvukovoi defektoskopii/Uchebnoe posobie dlya studentov vuzov, obuchayushchikhsya po napravleniyam “Elektronika i mikroelektronika”, “Radiotekhnika” (Signal Processing Methods in Ultrasonic Flaw Detection/Textbook for University Students Enrolled in the Areas of “Electronics and Microelectronics”, “Radio Engineering”), Moscow: Moscow Power Eng. Inst. Publ., 2010.

  21. 21

    Bazulin, E.G., On the possibility of using the maximum entropy method in ultrasonic nondestructive testing for scatterer visualization from a set of echo signals, Acoust. Phys., 2013, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 210–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Bazulin, E.G., Reconstruction of the images of reflectors from ultrasonic echo signals using the maximum-entropy method, Russ. J. Nondestr. Test., 2013, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 26–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    “ECHO +”: the official company website. http://www.echoplus.ru. Cited December 15, 2019.

  24. 24

    Hsiao-Hwa Chen, The Next Generation CDMA Technologies, Chichester: Wiley, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to S.Yu. Romanov, A leading researcher at the Research Computing Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University, for comments and suggestions made when preparing this article.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. G. Bazulin.

Additional information

Translated by V. Potapchouck

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Avagyan, V.K., Bazulin, E.G. Increasing the Rate of Recording Echo Signals with an Ultrasonic Antenna Array Using Code Division Multiple Access Technology. Russ J Nondestruct Test 56, 873–886 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1061830920110029

Download citation

Keywords:

  • ultrasonic nondestructive testing
  • double scanning
  • triple scanning
  • digital focusing with an antenna (DFA)
  • maximum entropy method (MEM)
  • code division multiple access (CDMA)