Endosymbiotic Origin of Chloroplasts in Plant Cells’ Evolution


The theory of endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts has become basal in present-day biology. In this regard, the emergence of eukaryotic photosynthesis has been established as a result of phagocytal capture of cyanobacteria by some ancestral eukaryotic cell. The phenomenon of endosymbiosis is an indispensable element of cell evolution theory. The process of endosymbiogenesis belongs to the crucial factors of biological progress that gave rise to astonishing diversity and complexity of the eukaryotic organisms. The modern theory of evolution is built on the joint base of the phenomena of endosymbiosis, parallel gene transfer, the theory of natural selection, and the data of phylogenomics. Ultimately, eukaryogenesis has integrated different supramolecular complexes in the cells, created the diversity of organelles, and has led to biosphere oxygenation and modern diversity of living forms.

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This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 19-14-50366.

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Translated by A. Aver’yanov

Abbreviations: Chl—chlorophyll.

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Stadnichuk, I.N., Kusnetsov, V.V. Endosymbiotic Origin of Chloroplasts in Plant Cells’ Evolution. Russ J Plant Physiol 68, 1–16 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443721010179

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  • plastids
  • chloroplasts
  • cyanobacteria
  • evolution
  • endosymbiosis