We study algebraically and verbally closed subgroups and retracts of finitely generated nilpotent groups. A special attention is paid to free nilpotent groups and the groups UTn(Z) of unitriangular (n×n)-matrices over the ring Z of integers for arbitrary n. We observe that the sets of retracts of finitely generated nilpotent groups coincides with the sets of their algebraically closed subgroups. We give an example showing that a verbally closed subgroup in a finitely generated nilpotent group may fail to be a retract (in the case under consideration, equivalently, fail to be an algebraically closed subgroup). Another example shows that the intersection of retracts (algebraically closed subgroups) in a free nilpotent group may fail to be a retract (an algebraically closed subgroup) in this group. We establish necessary conditions fulfilled on retracts of arbitrary finitely generated nilpotent groups. We obtain sufficient conditions for the property of being a retract in a finitely generated nilpotent group. An algorithm is presented determining the property of being a retract for a subgroup in free nilpotent group of finite rank (a solution of a problem of Myasnikov). We also obtain a general result on existentially closed subgroups in finitely generated torsion-free nilpotent with cyclic center, which in particular implies that for each n the group UTn(Z) has no proper existentially closed subgroups.
nilpotent group retract algebraically (verbally) closed subgroup group of integer unitriangular matrices
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