Reconsideration on Hydration of Sodium Ion: From Micro-Hydration to Bulk Hydration
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Micro hydration structures of the sodium ion, [Na(H2O) n ]+, n = 1–12, were probed by density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in both gaseous and aqueous phase. The predicted equilibrium sodium–oxygen distance of 0.240 nm at the present level of theory. The four-, five- and six-coordinated cluster can transform from each other at the ambient condition. The analysis of the successive water binding energy and natural charge population (NBO) on Na+ clearly shows that the influence of Na+ on the surrounding water molecules goes beyond the first hydration shell with the hydration number of 6. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulation shows that only the first hydration sphere can be found, and the hydration number of Na+ is 5.2 and the hydration distance (rNa–O) is 0.235 nm. All our simulations mentioned in the present paper show an excellent agreement with the diffraction result from X-ray scattering study.
Keywordssodium ion DFT CPMD micro hydration RDF
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