This is the first report on the fossilized fibers found in the Archean banded manganese formations of the Chitradurga Greenstone Belt (2.8 Ga, South India), which are similar to the stalk fibers of modern Gallionella ferruginea Ehrenberg, 1838. We have therefore concluded that the intertwined and assembled stalk fibers provide indirect evidence for the presence of bacteria and biogenic mineral formation, but should not be considered as microorganisms.
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The author thanks A.Yu. Rozanov, E.A. Zhegallo, O.S. Samylina, and G.T. Ushatinskaya. The author is grateful to everyone who helped to carry out this work and participated in the discussion of the results, especially A.B. Vrevsky who provided rock samples for this study and L.V. Zaitseva for assistance in the studies with a Zeiss EVO 50 electron microscope.
This study was supported by the Program no. 17 of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (“The Evolution of the Organic World. The Role and Effect of Planetary Processes”, Subprogram I “Development of Life and Biosphere Processes”), by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 20-04-00043), and by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation.
Translated by A. Panyushkina
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Astafieva, M.M. Iron Bacteria Gallionella in Archean of India. Paleontol. J. 54, 215–219 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0031030120030028
- banded manganese formations (BMnF)
- banded iron formations (BIF)
- Gallionella ferruginea
- mineral formation
- iron and manganese precipitation