Functional Surfaces with Enhanced Heat Transfer for Spray Cooling Technology
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In this study the effects of nano/microstructuring and surface chemistry on wettability, evaporation rate and the Leidenfrost temperature are experimentally investigated. The functional surfaces with two alternative patterns were originally fabricated via direct femtosecond laser surface processing of polished silicon wafer in air at a fluence slightly above ablation threshold. The droplet lifetime method was used to measure the evaporation rate of a water droplet (4.5 μL) at surface temperatures of 25–350°C and to determine the Leidenfrost temperature. Generally, after processing the functional surfaces with hierarchical surface morphology demonstrate enhanced wetting behavior, evaporation rate enhancement and positive shifts in the Leidenfrost temperature. The functional surfaces with a microgrooved surface pattern, extensively covered by flake-like nanostructures, exhibit strong superhydrophilicity, resulted in a significant temperature-dependent enhancement of evaporation rate (up to 6 times) and an increase of about 30°C in the Leidenfrost temperature relative to the polished surface. The functional surfaces with a microcratered surface pattern being only hydrophilic demonstrate a nearly twofold temperature-independent enhancement of evaporation rate. Thermostability tests showed the heating of the functional surfaces above 340°C to be resulted in a drastically deteriorated wettability and a reduction of evaporative heat transfer performance under repeated experiments.
Keywordsfemtosecond laser silicon wettability superhydrophilicity superhydrophobicity evaporation rate heat transfer thermal training
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