Mid-Deep and Deeply Buried Clastic Reservoirs Porosity Evolution Simulation with Using the Process-Based Method

Abstract

It was showed that reservoir diagenetic and reservoir-forming characteristics are of great value for exploration and exploitation of conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Thus understanding on diagenetic evolution has important significance for successful hydrocarbon exploration. In this paper, a process-based model (PBM) was established to give quantitative characterization of diagenesis strength and its corresponding effect on porosity evolution in burial history on identifying of diagenetic sequence. Taking the Paleogene lake sediment sandstone in Bozhong depression as an example, diagenetic sequences as well as occurrence stage of each diagenesis including compaction (MC), cementation (CEM), and dissolution (DIS) were determined by means of thin section, scanning electron microscope, homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion, and then diagenesis type, diagenesis strength and its effect on porosity in burial history were identified based on diagenetic numerical model proposed in this research. The main understandings are as follows: (i) The lithofacies for the Ed1, Ed2, Ed3, and Es1 in the Paleogene lake sandstone are Q63.8F22.2L14.0, Q32.0F38.9L29.1, Q28.8F59.5L12.5, and Q47.1F16.9L36.0, respectively; (ii) the reservoir of Paleogene in Bozhong sag is mainly in stage IB‒IIB. It was showed that 1600‒2100 m is in the stage IB, while 2000‒3100 m is in the stage IIA1, 3000‒4000 m is in the stage IIA1, and over 4000 m is in IIB; (iii) The diagenesis experienced by these sandstones includes compaction/carbonate cementation-feldspar dissolution/carbonate dissolution/precipitation of quartz cements and kaolin-illitization of kaoline/illite/precipitation of ferrocalcite and ankerite; (iv) The influence of diagenesis on pore development of the sandstone reservoir in the study area was discussed. The effects of diagenesis on pore development were quantitatively described by compaction, cementation and dissolution, and the effects of diagenesis on pore development were analyzed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 12.

REFERENCES

  1. 1

    A. A. Abdallah, H. M. Mohammed, and M. A. Osman, “Insights on spatial variography and outcrop-subsurface relationship of sandstone reservoir properties: A case study from the Late Triassic Minjur Formation, central Saudi Arabia,” J. Afr. Earth Sci. 153, 173‒184 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    M. A. Abdulaziz, H. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Sayyouh, “Prediction of reservoir quality using well logs and seismic attributes analysis with an artificial neural network: A case study from Farrud Reservoir, Al-Ghani Field, Libya,” J. Appl. Geophys. 161, 239–254 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    M. A. Ahmadi, M. R. Ahmadi, M. Hosseini, M. Ebadi, “Connectionist model predicts the porosity and permeability of petroleum reservoirs by means of petro-physical logs: Application of artificial intelligence,” J. Pet. Sci. 123, 183–200 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    J. M. Ajdukiewicz and R. H. Lander, “Sandstone reservoir quality prediction: The state of the art,” AAPG Bull. 94, 1083–1091 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    D. M. Audet and J. D. C. McConnell, “Establishing resolution limits for tectonic subsidence curves by forward basin modelling,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 11, 400‒411 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    T. Barth and K. Bjørlykke, “Organic acids from source rock maturation: Generation potentials, transport mechanisms and relevance for mineral diagenesis,” J. Appl. Geochem. 8, 325–337 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    S. Bloch, “Empirical prediction of porosity and permeability in sandstones,” AAPG Bull. 75, 1145–1160 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    S. Bloch, H. L. Robert, and B. Linda, “Anomalously high porosity and permeability in deeply buried sandstone reservoirs: Origin and predictability,” AAPG Bull. 86, 301–328 (2002).

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    K. Bjørlykke, “Clay mineral diagenesis in sedimentary basins-a key to the prediction of rock properties: Examples from the North Sea Basin” Clay Minerals 33, 15‒34 (1998).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    J. Borgomano, J. P. Masse, M. M. Fenerci, and F. Fournier, “Petrophysics of Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate outcrops in province (SE France): Implications for carbonate reservoir characterization,” J. Pet. Geol. 36, 5–42 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    B. David and E. W. H. Bahr, “Exponential approximations to compacted sediment porosity profiles,” Comput. Geosci. 27, 691‒700 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    S. P. Dutton and T. N. Diggs, “Evolution of porosity and permeability in the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation, East Texas,” AAPG Bull. 76, 252‒269 (1992).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    N. Edward, B. H. Matteo, and F. Carlos, “Experimental and modeling study of calcium carbonate precipitation and its effects on the degradation of oil well cement during carbonated brine exposure,” Cem. Concr. Res. 113, 1‒12 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    W. C. Elliot and J. L. Aronson, “Kinetics of the smectite to illite transformation in the Denver Basin: Clay mineral, K-Ar data, and mathematical model results,” AAPG Bull. 75, 436‒462 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    M. Farfour, W.  J. Yoon, and J. Kim, “Seismic attributes and acoustic impedance inversion in interpretation of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs.” J. Appl. Geophys. 114, 68–80 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    R. L. Folk, Petrology of Sedimentary Rock (Hemphill Publ. Co, Austin, Tex., 1974).

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    W. He, A. Hajash, and D. Sparks, “A model for porosity evolution during creep compaction of sandstones,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197, 237‒244 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    G. Jon and A. Leonard, “Diagenesis of the Rotliegend Sandstone: The answer aren’t blown in the wind,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 12, 491‒497 (1995).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    A. K. Julie, G. Jon, and B. Salman, “Reservoir quality prediction in sandstones and carbonates: An overview,” AAPG Mem. 69, 1‒18 (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    C. Lampe, G. Song, L. Cong, and X. Mu, “Fault control on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Tertiary Dongying depression, Bohai Basin, China,” AAPG Bull. 96, 983‒1000 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    R. H. Lander and O. Walderhaug, “Predicting porosity through simulating sandstone compaction and quartz cementation,” AAPG Bull. 83, 433‒449 (1999).

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    R. H. Lander and L. M. Bonnell, “A model for fibrous illite nucleation and growth in sandstones,” AAPG Bull. 94, 1161‒1187 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    M. Li, R. Zhu, and Z. Lou, “Diagenesis and its impact on the reservoir quality of the fourth member of Xujiahe Formation, Western Sichuan depression, China,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 103, 485–498 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    H. Liu, S. Zhang, and G. Song, “Effect of shale diagenesis on pores and storage capacity in the Paleogene Shahejie Formation, Dongying depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 103, 738-752 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    F. X. Lu and L. Sang, Petrology (Geol. Publ., Beijing, 2006), pp. 196‒121.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    C. E. Manning, “The solubility of quartz in H2O in the lower crust and upper mantle,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 4831‒4839 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    S. J. Mazzullo and P. M. Harris, “Mesogenetic dissolution: Its role in porosity development in carbonate reservoirs,” AAPG Bull. 76, 607‒620 (1992).

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    J. M. McKinley, C. D. Lloyd, and A. H. Ruffell, “Use of variography in permeability characterization of visually homogeneous sandstone reservoirs with examples from outcrop studies,” Math. Geol. 36, 761–779 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Y. L. Meng, C. Xu, and H. Xie, “A new kinetic model for authigenic quartz formation under overpressure,” Pet. Explor. Dev. 40, 751‒757 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    J. O. Olakunle, C. A. Andrew, and J. J. Stuart, “Vertical effective stress as a control on quartz cementation in sandstones,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 98, 640‒652 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    W. Olav, “Kinetic modeling of quartz cementation and porosity loss in deeply buried sandstone reservoirs,” AAPG Bull. 80, 731–745 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    G. F. Pan, Z. Liu, and S. Zhao, “Quantitative simulation of sandstone porosity evolution: A case from Yanchang Formation of the Zhenjing area, Ordos Basin,” Acta Pet. Sin. 32, 249‒256 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    W. D. Qian, T. J. Yin, and C. M. Zhang, “Forming condition and geology prediction techniques of deep clastic reservoirs,” Acta Geol. Sin. 91, 255‒256 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    W. D. Qian, T. J. Yin, and C. M. Zhang, “Geology prediction techniques for reservoir evolution simulation,” Geotectonics 53, 399‒418 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    W. D. Qian, T. J. Yin, and C. M. Zhang, “Diagenesis and diagenetic stages prediction of Ed2 reservoir in the west of Bozhong depression,” Petroleum 6, 23‒30 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    T. W. Randolph, R. F. John, and M. O. Charles, “An experimental investigation of the role of microfracture surfaces in controlling quartz precipitation rate: Applications to fault zone diagenesis,” J. Struct. Geol. 74, 24‒30 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    N. Runar, G. Marte, G. Rajeeb, and H. Kaare, “Compaction behavior of argillaceous sediments as function of diagenesis,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 21, 349‒362 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    S. Stephan, J. J. Stuart, S. Shanvas, and B. Leon, “Exceptional reservoir quality in HPHT reservoir settings: Examples from the Skagerrak Formation of the Heron Cluster, North Sea, UK,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 77, 198‒215 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    J. J. Sweeney, “Evaluation of a simple model of vitrinite reflectance based on chemical kinetics,” AAPG Bull. 74, 1559‒1570 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    T. R. Taylor, M. R. Giles, and L. A. Hathon, “Sandstone diagenesis and reservoir quality prediction: Models, myths, and reality,” AAPG Bull. 94, 1093–1132 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    J. S. Tribble, R. S. Arvidson, and M. Lane, “Crystal chemistry, and thermodynamic and kinetic properties of calcite, dolomite, apatite and biogenic silica: Applications to petrologic problems,” Chem. Geol. 95, 11–37 (1995).

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    J. Wang, Y. C. Cao, and K. Liu, “Identification of sedimentary-diagenetic facies and reservoir porosity and permeability prediction: An example from the Eocene beach-bar sandstone in the Dongying depression, China,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 82, 69‒84 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    P. K. Weyl and D. C. Beard, “Influence of texture on porosity and permeability of unconsolidated sand,” AAPG Bull. 57, 349‒369 (1973).

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    R. T. Williams, J. R. Farver, and C. M. Onasch, “An experimental investigation of the role of microfracture surfaces in controlling quartz precipitation rate: Applications to fault zone diagenesis,” J. Struct. Geol. 74, 24‒30 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    J. R. Wood and A. P. Byrnes, “Alternate and emerging methodologies in geochemical and empirical modeling,” in Reservoir Quality Assessment and Prediction in Clastic Rocks, Vol. 30 of SEPM Short Course, Ed. by M. D. Wilson (Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Tulsa, Okla., 1994), pp. 395–399.

  46. 46

    Y. Yang, B. Liu, and S. Qian, “Dissolution response mechanism of the carbonate mineral with the increase of depth and its reservoir significance,”Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Pekin. 49, 859‒866 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47

    G. H. Yuan, G. Jon, and Y. C. Cao, “Diagenesis and reservoir quality evolution of the Eocene sandstones in the northern Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 62, 77‒89 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    G. H. Yuan, Y. C. Cao, and G. Jon, “Reactive transport modeling of coupled feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation and its implication for diagenetic interaction in sandstones,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 207, 232‒255 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49

    G. H. Yuan, Y. C. Cao, Y. Zhang, and G. Jon, “Diagenesis and reservoir quality of sandstones with ancient “deep” incursion of meteoric fresh water-An example in the Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 82, 444–464 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50

    G. H. Yuan, Y. C. Cao, M. S. Hans, and F. Hao, “A review of feldspar alteration and its geological significance in sedimentary basins: From shallow aquifers to deep hydrocarbon reservoirs,” Earth Sci. Rev. 191,114‒140 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51

    F. X. Ying and J. M. Zheng, “Diagenetic sequence and model of reservoirs of coal-bearing formation for prediction oil and gas distribution,” Pet. Sci. Technol. Pap. 4, 19‒24 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52

    S. Zhang, J. Yan, and Q. Hu, “Integrated NMR and FE-SE--M methods for pore structure characterization of Shahejie shale from the Dongying depression, Bohai Bay Basin,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 100, 85‒94 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the following individuals and institutions: Dr. Q. H. Liu (University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China), Dr. H. B. Chen (Jilin University, Jilin, China), CNOOC Bohai Branch (China) provided all the related core samples and some geological data of Bozhong Sag. We are also grateful to reviewer Dr. N.P. Chamov (Geological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia).

Funding

This research work was funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology “Large Oil and Gas Fields and CBM Development” (Grant no. 2016ZX05027-02-007), Major Projects of National Science and Technology “Large Oil and Gas Fields and CBM Development” (Grant no. 2016ZX05024-003-004), the National Natural Science Fund (Grant no. 41 672 119) and Open Foundation of Top Disciplines in Yangtze University (Wuhan, China).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. Taiju.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Qian, W.D., Zheng, F., Huijia, T. et al. Mid-Deep and Deeply Buried Clastic Reservoirs Porosity Evolution Simulation with Using the Process-Based Method. Geotecton. 54, 844–861 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016852120060096

Download citation

Keywords:

  • clastic sandstones
  • process-based model
  • pores evolution
  • diagenetic stage
  • Bozhong depression