Entomological Review

, Volume 98, Issue 9, pp 1342–1350 | Cite as

Distribution and Specificity of Host-Parasite Associations of Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Central Caucasus

  • B. K. KottiEmail author


In the territory of the Central Caucasus, which constitutes one-fifth of that of the Greater Caucasus, the order of fleas is represented by 87 species, 67 of which are associated with mammals and 20 species, with birds. The regional fauna includes 6 species endemic to the Greater Caucasus and 3 species endemic to its central part. Fleas of 72 species are distributed along the entire longitudinal extent of the Central Caucasus; 18 species are associated with the highlands and 2 species are found only in the steppe foothills and forest-steppe midlands. The flea distribution is determined by the presence of suitable hosts and by some other factors. Rodents of the family Cricetidae are the main hosts of more than one third of all the mammal flea species in the region. Passeriform birds of the families Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, and Muscicapidae are the main hosts of the greatest part of bird flea species. The flea fauna of the Central Caucasus is highly similar in species composition to the faunas of the West and East Caucasus, largely due to the wide distribution of many host species throughout the Greater Caucasus.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Balashov, Yu.S., Parasitism of Acarines and Insects on Terrestrial Vertebrates (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 2009) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belik, V.P., “Ornithogeographic Connections and Zonal Subdivision of the Greater Caucasus,” Strepet 11 (1), 5–88 (2013).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Belyavtseva, L.I., Mozloev, G.A., Khazhnagoeva, E.Kh., Krivosheeva, I.G., Lesnykh, A.L., Ekhakumasheva, S.A., Shinkareva, V.N., Pshikhachev, N.Kh., and Gergokov, K., “Distribution Patterns of Fleas Inhabiting the Caucasian Mountain Ground Squirrel Colonies within the Central Caucasian Alpine Plague Focus,” in Mountain Ecosystems and Their Components, Issue 1, Ed. by Rozhnov, V.V. (KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, 2007), pp. 98–103 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beme, R.L., Zhordaniya, R.G., and Kuznetsov, A.A., Birds of Georgia (Sabchota Sakartvelo, Tbilisi, 1987) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chunikhin, S.P., “Vertical Zonality in the Bird Distribution in Kabardino-Balkaria,” in Ornithology, Issue 5, Ed. by Larionov, V.F. (Moscow State University, Moscow, 1962), pp. 186–192 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dampf, A., “Eine neue Aphanipteren–Art (Ischnopsyllus dolosus sp. n.) aus dem Kaukasus,” Revue Russe d’Entomologie 12, 41–59 (1912).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Darskaya, N.F., “Key to Bird Fleas of the Genus Ceratophyllus,” in Ectoparasites, Issue 2, Ed. by Beklemishev, V.N. (MOIP, Moscow, 1950), pp. 85–105 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Devkin, A.I., “Rhadinopsylla li Arg. (Aphaniptera) in the Caucasus,” in Proceedings of the IV Conference of Young Biologists, Ed. by Safaraliev, B.M. (Moscow State University, Moscow, 1966), pp. 57–58.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dyatlov, A.I. and Grigoriev, M.P., “The Population Structure of the Little Ground Squirrel (Citellus pygmaeus musicus Menetrie, 1832) in the Mt. Elbrus Area,” Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii 51 (6), 783–796 (1990).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goncharov, A.I., “A New Species of Fleas of the Family Ceratophyllidae (Siphonaptera) from Georgia,” Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 59 (3), 676–678 (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gulisashvili, V.Z., Makhatadze, L.B., and Prilipko, L.I., Vegetation of the Caucasus (Nauka, Moscow, 1975) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ioff, I.G., “On Some New or Little Known Flea Species (Aphaniptera),” in Collected Papers in Parasitology, Issue 7, Ed. by Pavlovsky, E.N. (USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1940), pp. 210–229 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ioff, I.G., Tiflov, V.E., Argiropulo, A.I., Fedina, O.A., Dudolkina, L.A., and Shiranovich, P.I., “New Species of Fleas (Aphaniptera),” Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 15 (4), 85–94 (1946).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ioff, I.G., Gershkovich, N.Ya., Zagniborodova, E.N., Labunets, N.F., Lebedev, Yu.D., Mikulin, M.A., Skalon, O.I., Tiflov, V.E., Shvarts, E.A., Yurkina, V.I., and Yagubyants, I.M., “New Species of Fleas (Suctoria Aphaniptera). Communication 3,” Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 5, 460–465 (1953).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Isakov, Yu.A., Zimina, R.P., and Panfilov, D.V., “The Fauna,” in The Caucasus, Ed. by Gerasimov, A.P., (Nauka, Moscow, 1966), pp. 256–304 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Komarov, Yu.E., Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Moscow, 1995).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Komarov, Yu.E., “On the Nesting Biology of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the Mountains of North Ossetia,” The Russian Journal of Ornithology 26 (Express Issue), 1967–1971 (2017).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Komarov, Yu.E. and Khokhlov, A.N., The Forest Fauna of North Ossetia (North Caucasus State Technical University, Stavropol, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Komarov, Yu.E. and Labunets, N.F., “Fleas Inhabiting Bird Nests in the Mountain Part of North Ossetia,” in Parasitological Studies in Nature Reserves, Ed. by Ivanov, I.A. (Moscow, 1983), pp. 94–97 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Komarov, Yu.E. and Labunets, N.F., “The Fleas Associated with Bats in North Ossetia,” in Chiroptera, Ed. by Bukhtoyarov, S.A. (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1988), pp. 160–161 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Komarov, Yu.E., Vasyukova, T.T., and Labunets, N.F., “Parasitological Fauna of North Ossetia,” in The Fauna of North Ossetia, Ed. by Popov, N.V. (Proekt-Press, Vladikavkaz, 2000), pp. 373–384 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korzhov, P.N. and Labunets, N.F., “Distribution and Abundance of Common Voles in the Territory of Potential Disease Foci in the East Caucasian Mountains,” in Especially Dangerous Infections in the Caucasus, Ed. by Taran, I.F. (Stavropolskaya Pravda, Stavropol, 1987), pp. 305–307 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kotti, B.K., “On the Zoogeography of the Caucasus,” in Modern Biogeography, Ed. by Likhovid, A.A and Rakhilin, V.K. (Stavropol State University, Moscow–Stavropol, 2005), pp. 216–223 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kotti, B.K., Catalog of Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Fauna of Russia and Adjoining Countries (Alfa Print, Stavropol, 2013) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kotti, B.K., Species Diversity of Fleas (Siphonaptera) of the Caucasus (North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, 2014) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kotti, B.K., “Fleas (Siphonaptera) of Mammals and Birds in the Great Caucasus,” Parazitologiya 49 (4), 289–303 (2015) [Entomological Review 95 (6), 728–738 (2015)].Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kotti, B.K., “Fleas (Siphonaptera) Associated with Mammals and Birds in the Ciscaucasia,” Parazitologiya 50 (6), 460–470 (2016) [Entomological Review 96 (8), 1108–1114 (2016)].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kotti, B.K. and Kotova, E.G., “Fleas (Siphonaptera) Associated with Mammals in the Mountain Area between the Kuban and Bolshaya Laba Rivers,” Parazitologiya 48 (5), 393–403 (2014a) [Entomological Review 95 (1), 54–60 (2015)].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kotti, B.K. and Kotova, E.G., “The Fauna of Fleas (Siphonaptera) of Mammals in the Malaya Laba and Belaya Interfluve,” Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni, No. 1, 35–37 (2014b).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kotti, B.K., Labunets, N.F., Devkin, A.I., Syrvacheva, N.G., and Kazakova, T.I., “Fleas (Siphonaptera) of the Mt. Elbrus Area,” Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 80 (2), 398–402 (2001) [Entomological Review 81 (2), 188–192 (2001)].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kutyrev, V.V. and Popova, A.Yu., Registry of the Epidemic and Epizootic Manifestations of Plague in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet States for the Period between 1876 and 2016 (Amirit, Saratov, 2016) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Labunets, N.F. and Degtyareva, L.V., “On Bat Fleas in the North Caucasus,” Parazitologiya 19 (3), 177–180 (1988).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Labunets, N.F. and Golubev, P.D., “On a New Record of the Central Asian Flea Rhadinopsylla (Rallipsylla) li Arg., 1941 in the Mt. Elbrus Area,” Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii 3 (25), 90–92 (1972).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Labunets, N.F. and Komarov, Yu.E., “Bird Fleas in the Mountains of North Ossetia,” in Especially Dangerous Infections in the Caucasus, Ed. by Taran, I.F. (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1987), pp. 332–333 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Labunets, N.F. and Korzhov, P.N., “The Norway Rat in the Mountains of North Ossetia,” in Proceedings of the Extended Meeting of the Armenian Anti-Plague Station, Ed. by Arevshatian, L.A. (Armenian SSR Ministry of Education, Yerevan, 1983), pp. 26–28 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Labunets, N.F., Akiev, A.K., Goncharov, A.I., and Golubev, P.D., “On the Fleas of the Caucasian Mountain Ground Squirrel in the Mt. Elbrus Area,” Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii 1 (35), 82–89 (1974).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Labunets, N.F., Syrvacheva, N.G., and Gubareva, N.P., “Fleas (Siphonaptera) of the Central Caucasian Plague Focus,” in Prophylaxis of Naturofocal Infections, Ed. by Suchkov, Yu.G. (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1983), pp. 247–249 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Labunets, N.F., Korzhov, P.N., and Degtyareva, L.V., “Distribution and Landscape Association of Fleas Parasitizing Voles in the Mountains of North Ossetia,” in Especially Dangerous Infections in the Caucasus, Ed. by aran, I.F. (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1984), pp. 160–162 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Labunets, N.F., Korzhov, P.N., Degtyareva, L.V., and Kalmykova, E.P., “On the Alpine Complexes of Fleas of the Common and Major’s Pine Voles in North Ossetia and the West of Checheno-Ingushetia,” in Topical Problems of Naturofocal, Especially Dangerous, and Other Bacterial and Viral Infections, Ed. by Nersesov, V.A. (Tbilisi, 1988), pp. 142–147 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Medvedev, S.G., “Fauna and Host-Parasite Relations of Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Palaearctic,” Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 77 (2), 295–314 (1998) [Entomological Review 78 (3), 292–308 (1998)].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Medvedev, S.G., “Taxonomic Composition and Zoogeographic Characteristics of the Flea Fauna (Siphonaptera) of Russia,” Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 92 (1), 85–101 (2013) [Entomological Review 93 (5), 595–607 (2013)].Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Medvedev, S.G. and Kotti, B.K., “Patterns of Formation of the Flea (Siphonaptera) Fauna in the Caucasus,” Parazitologiya 45 (6), 470–487 (2011) [Entomological Review 92 (4), 403–408 (2012)].Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Medvedev, S.G. and Kotti, B.K., “Host Associations and Origin in the Formation of the Caucasian Fauna of Fleas (Siphonaptera),” Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 91 (4), 714–734 (2012) [Entomological Review 93 (3), 293–308 (2013)].Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pavlinov, I.Ya. and Lisovsky, A.A., Mammals of Russia: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference Book (KMK Scientific Press, 2012) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Razumova, I.N., Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Leningrad, 1954) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rostigaev, B.A., “A New Flea Species, Ctenophthalmus shovi sp. n. (Aphaniptera),” Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni, 17 (3), 252–254 (1948).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Savenko, R.F., “Two New Species of Aphaniptera from Georgia,” Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk GSSR 9 (18), 501–505 (1949).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Savenko, R.F., “Materials on the Flea (Aphaniptera) Fauna of Georgia,” in Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences, Issue 9, Ed. by Shchavishvili, M.A. (Tbilisi, 1950), pp. 103–116 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shidlovsky, M.V., “Mammals in the Alpine Fauna of the Greater Caucasus in Georgia,” in Fauna of the Greater Caucasus Highlands within the Boundaries of Georgia, Ed. by Kokhia, S.S. (Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, 1964), pp. 175–197 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shidlovsky, M.V., A Key to the Rodents of the Transcaucasia (Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1976) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sokolov, V.E. and Tembotov, A.K., Mammals of the Caucasus: Insectivora (Nauka, Moscow, 1989) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stepanyan, L.S., Synopsis of the Bird Fauna of Russia and Adjoining Territories (within the Historical Boundaries of the USSR) (Akademkniga, Moscow, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Syrvacheva, N.G., “Materials on the Flea Fauna of Kabardino-Balkar ASSR,” in Proceedings of the Armenian Antiplague Station, Issue 3, Ed. by Mkrtchian, S.A. (Armenian SSR Ministry of Education, Yerevan, 1964), pp. 389–405 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tarasov, M.P., “Small Mammals of the Central Caucasian Natural Plague Focus,” in Prophylaxis of Naturofocal Infections, Ed. by Suchkov, Yu.G. (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1983), pp. 161–162 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tarasov, M.P., A Key to the Rodents and Lagomorphs of the North Caucasus (Stavropol University, Stavropol, 2002) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tembotov, A.K., The Geography of the Mammals of the North Caucasus (Elbrus, Nalchik, 1972) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tembotov, A.K. and Kazakov, B.A., “Vertebrates of the Latitudinal Zones and Altitudinal Belts of the North Caucasus,” in Resources of the Living Fauna, Issue 2, Ed. by Tembotov, A.K. (Rostov University, Rostov, 1982), pp. 37–102 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tiflov, V.E., Skalon, O.I., and Rostigaev, B.A., A Key to the Fleas of the Caucasus (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1977) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tsikhistavi, Sh.G., “Supplementary Materials on the Flea (Aphaniptera) Fauna of Georgia,” in The Fauna and Ecology of Invertebrates of Georgia, Ed. by Gulisashvili, V.Z. (Sabchota Sakartvelo, Tbilisi, 1983), pp. 196–200 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tsikhistavi, Sh.G., “Materials on the Fleas of Small Mammals in Svaneti,” in Especially Dangerous Infections in the Caucasus, Ed. by Suchkov, Yu.G. (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1987), pp. 344–345 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tsikhistavi, h.G., Magradze, G.P., Tarasov, M.P., and Goncharov, A.I., “Results of the Epizootic Examination of the Greater Caucasus South Slopes,” in Especially Dangerous Infections in the Caucasus, Ed. by Suchkov, Yu.G. (Stavropolskoe Knizhnoe Izdatelstvo, Stavropol, 1987), pp. 111–112 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tsikhistavi, Sh.G., Goncharov, A.I., Belyavtseva, L.I., Goncharov, A.A., Arakishvili, K.I., Ghasanov, R.A., and Safarova, J.A., “On Ectoparasites of Chionomys and Microtus from the Caucasus,” in The Results and Perspectives of Further Research of Siphonaptera in Palearctic from the Aspect of Their Significance for Practice: Proceedings of a Symposium (Bratislava, 1988), pp. 91–96.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wagner, J.N., “Contribution to the Fauna of the Caucasus’ Suctoria,” in Mitteilungen des Kaukasischen Museums, 10 (1), Ed. by Voronov, J.N. (Tiflis, 1916), pp. 54–64 [in Russian].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.North-Caucasus Federal UniversityStavropolRussia

Personalised recommendations