Entomological Review

, Volume 97, Issue 2, pp 171–182 | Cite as

Structure of cephalic ganglia and their changes in the post-embryonic development of Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera, Calliphoridae)



The central nervous system of Calliphora vomitoria larvae is situated in the metathoracic and the first abdominal segments and is characterized by a high degree of oligomerization. It consists of only two ganglia: the supraoesophageal ganglion, or brain, and one large synganglion, a product of fusion of the suboesophageal ganglion, three thoracic, and all the abdominal ganglia. Weak development of the neuropil of the larval optic and olfactory lobes in the supraoesophageal ganglion is the result of a significant reduction of the head capsule and sensory organs in the larvae. The formation of the imaginal optic lobes begins at the III larval instar. The commissure of the future central body is present in the I instar larva, but formation of the imaginal structure of the central complex proceeds in the 3-day pupae and ends at the late pupal stage. The mushroom bodies are represented in the I instar larvae only by the pedunculi; the calyces can be distinguished in the II instar larvae but the final formation of their structure and the lobes of the imaginal type occurs at the pupal stage. The glomeruli in the deutocerebrum are also formed at a late stage of pupal development. Based on the degree of development of ganglia of the central nervous system, we can conclude that individual development of higher Diptera is characterized by deep de-embryonization.


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© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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