Soil as a Biological System and Its New Category—Health
- 13 Downloads
It is proposed that soil should be considered a biological system with the following notions: “soil ecosystem” or “ecosystem of soil.” A new, integral characteristic of the soil ecosystem—soil health—is addressed. Parameters and methods essential to define soil health and characterize this new category are provided. Natural soil ecosystems and agroecosystems are discussed and compared. Conventional and organic land use systems are addressed in relation to agroecosystems. The need to determine and assess the health of soil ecosystems with respect to the land-use type is highlighted. Activities and methods required to preserve and protect the health of soil ecosystems, the significance of “activity suppression” in soil ecosystems, and means to diagnose soil health and to use therapy in modern agroecosystems are discussed.
Keywords:soil ecosystem soil health аgrosystem soil health parameters soil ecosystem protection suppressive activity therapy
We are grateful to A.H.C. van Bruggen and M.R. Finckh for the production and publication of a great book, Plant Diseases and Their Management in Organic Agriculture, Finckh, M.R., van Bruggen, A.H.C. and Tamm L., Eds., St. Paul, Mn: Am. Phytopathol. Soc., 2015.
COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARDS
Сonflict of interests. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statement on the welfare of animals. This article does not contain any studies involving animals performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Bruggen van, A.H.C. and Semenov, A.M., In search of biological indicators for soil health and disease suppression, Appl. Soil Ecol., 2000, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 13–24.Google Scholar
- 2.Bruggen van, A.H.C. and Semenov, A.M., Soil health and soil borne diseases in organic agriculture, in Plant Diseases and Their Management in Organic Agriculture, Finckh, M.R., van Bruggen, A.H.C. and Tamm, L., Eds., St. Paul, Mn: APS Press, 2015.Google Scholar
- 7.Filipchuk, O.D., Sokolov, M.S., and Pavlova, T.V., Use of soil suppressivity in plant protection from root infections, Agrokhimiya, 1997, no. 8, pp. 81–92.Google Scholar
- 8.Glinushkin, A.P., Sokolov, M.S., and Toropova, E.Yu., Fitosanitarnye i gigienicheskie trebovaniya k zdorovoi pochve (Phytosanitary and Hygienic Requirements to Healthy Soil), Moscow: Agrorus, 2016.Google Scholar
- 9.Kibblewhite, M.G., Ritz, K., and Swift, M.J., Soil health in agricultural systems, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B, 2008, vol. 363, no. 1492, pp. 685–701.Google Scholar
- 10.Kiryushin, V.I., Ekologicheskie osnovy zemledeliya (Ecological Principles of Land Agriculture), Moscow: Kolos, 1996.Google Scholar
- 12.O’Neill, R.V., DeAngeles, D.L., Waide, J.B., and Allen, T.F.H., A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1986.Google Scholar
- 13.Semenov, A.M. and van Bruggen, A.H.C., Parameters of healthy soil, Agro XXI, 2011, nos. 1–3, pp. 8–10.Google Scholar
- 14.Semenov, A.M. and Semenova, E.V., The method for determining the health parameter in samples of soil, composts and other solid substrates, Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii posvyashchennoi 85-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya D.I. Chkanikova “Sovremennye problemy gerbologii i ozdorovleniya pochv” (Proc. Int. Sci.-Pract. Conf. Dedicated to the 85th Anniversary of D.I. Chkanikov “Modern Problems in Herbology and Soil Health”), Bol’shie Vyazemy, 2016, pp. 291–298.Google Scholar
- 15.Semenov, A.M. and Sokolov, M.S., The concept of soil health: fundamental and applied aspects of evaluation criteria, Agrokhimiya, 2016, no. 1, pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
- 16.Semenov, A.M., Semenov, V.M., and van Bruggen, A.H.C., Diagnostics of health and quality of soil, Agrokhimiya, 2011, no. 12, pp. 4–20.Google Scholar
- 17.Semenov, A.M., Glinushkin, A.P., and Sokolov, M.S., Organic land agriculture and health of soil ecosystems, Dostizh. Nauki Tekh. APK, 2016a, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 5–8.Google Scholar
- 18.Semenov, A.M., Glinushkin, A.P., and Sokolov, M.S., Organic land agriculture and health of soil ecosystem, Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii posvyashchennoi 85-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya D.I. Chkanikova “Sovremennye problemy gerbologii i ozdorovleniya pochv” (Proc. Int. Sci.-Pract. Conf. Dedicated to the 85th Anniversary of D.I. Chkanikov “Modern Problems in Herbology and Soil Health”), Bol’shie Vyazemy, 2016b, pp. 283–291.Google Scholar
- 19.Semenov, A.M., Sokolov, M.S., Glinushkin, A.P., and Glazko, V.I., The health of soil ecosystem as self-maintenance and sustainable bioproductivity, Acta Phytopathol. Entomol. Hung., 2016c, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 305–318.Google Scholar
- 20.Toropova, E.Yu. and Kirichenko, A.A., RF Patent 2568913. http://www.findpatent.ru/patent/256/2568913.html. Accessed December 18, 2016.Google Scholar