Formation of Artificial Communities for the Ballast Water Management Systems Testing in Accordance with Requirements of International Maritime Organization
- 4 Downloads
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the convention adopted in 2004 imposes stringent requirements on the quality of seawater used in the testing of ballast water management systems (BWMS). They concern both the abundance of plankton organisms of two size groups, 10–50 μm and more than 50 μm, and the taxonomic composition (at least five species of three taxonomic types). Marine phytoplankton has a wide variety of sizes and morphological forms of cells, which makes it difficult to apply the imperative size adopted by the IMO. It is proposed to formalize the size criterion by calculating an equivalent spherical diameter. The real test of the BWMS in 2017 set the task of assessing the compliance of natural water with these quality standards. According to the results of annual monitoring in the northeastern part of the Black Sea, it has been shown that the species diversity of phytoplankton in the size group of 10–50 μm always corresponds to the necessary requirements, but its abundance is two orders of magnitude lower than required. In this case, the simultaneous presence of representatives of three different systematic groups in the initial water is not always observed. This poses the task of modifying the hydrobiological parameters of ballast water by the addition of cultivated species and the formation of a new community with predetermined properties. In this work, we used an intense culture of green algae, which made it possible to increase the abundance of cells to the level corresponding to IMO requirements and also to add a representative of another taxonomic group. Taxonomic diversity in the size group above 50 μm is sufficient and is provided by species diversity of zooplankton; however, the contribution of these organisms to the total population is not large (no more than 3%). The necessary abundance of representatives of this size group was ensured by the cultivation of large dinoflagellates.
Keywordsinvasions phytoplankton zooplankton BWMS organism size Black Sea
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- AlgaeBase, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed December 14, 2017.
- Cullen, J.J. and MacIntyre, H.L., On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment, J. Appl. Phycol., 2015, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 279–298. doi 10.1007/s10811-015-0601-xCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Drake, L.A., Doblin, M.A., and Dobbs, F.C., Potential microbial bioinvasions via ships’ ballast water, sediment, and biofilm, Mar. Poll. Bull., 2007, vol. 55, pp. 333–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.11.007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Drozdov, V.V., Transboundary pollution of marine ecosystems by ballast water from large-capacity vessels and technologies for its prevention, Ekol. Promyshl. Ross., 2014, no. 9, pp. 38–43.Google Scholar
- Harrison, P.J., Zingone, A., Mickelson, M.J., Lehtinen, S., Ramaiah, N., Kraberg, A., Sun, J., McQuatters-Gollop, A., and Jakobsen, H.H., Cell volumes of marine phytoplankton from globally distributed coastal data sets, Est. Coast. Shelf Sci., 2015, vol. 162, pp. 130–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.05.026. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Identifying Marine Phytoplankton, Tomas, C.R., Ed., San Diego: Academic, 1997.Google Scholar
- IMO, 2015: International Mathematical Olympiad. http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/BallastWaterManagement/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed December 14, 2017.
- Kiselev, I.A., Plankton morei i kontinental’nykh vodoemov (Plankton of the Seas and Continental Reservoirs), Leningrad: Nauka, 1969, vol. 1.Google Scholar
- Mikaelyan, A.S., Malej, A., Shiganova, T.A., Turk, V., Sivkovitch, A.E., Musaeva, E.I., Kogovšek, T., and Lukasheva, T.A., Populations of the red tide forming dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney): a comparison between the Black Sea and the northern Adriatic Sea, Harmful Algae, 2014, vol. 33, pp. 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olenina, I., Hajdu, S., Edle, L., Andersson, A., Wasmund, N., Busch, S., Göbel, J., Gromisz, S., Huseby, S., Huttunen, M., Jaanus, A., Kokkonen, P., Ledaine, I., and Niemkiewicz, E., Biovolumes and size-classes of phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea, HELCOM Balt. Sea Environ. Proc., 2006, no. 106.Google Scholar
- Poglazova, M.N. and Mitskevich, I.N., The use of fluorescamine to determine the amount of microorganisms in sea water by the epifluorescence method, Mikrobiologiya, 1984, no. 5, pp. 850–858.Google Scholar
- Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu trebovanii Mezhdunarodnoi konventsii o kontrole sudovykh ballastnykh vod i osadkov i upravleniyu imi 2004 goda. Rossiiskii morskoi registr sudokhodstva (Guidance on the Application of the Requirements of the International Convention on the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004. Russian Maritime Register of Shipping), St. Petersburg, 2017.Google Scholar
- Shiganova, T.A., Alien species in the ecosystems of the southern inland seas of Eurasia, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, 2009.Google Scholar
- Silkin, V.A. and Khailov, K.M., Bioekologicheskie mekhanizmy upravleniya v akvakul’ture (Bioecological Management Mechanisms in Aquaculture), Leningrad: Nauka, 1988.Google Scholar
- Silkin, V.A., Abakumov, A.I., Pautova, L.A., Mikaelyan, A.S., Chasovnikov, V.K., and Lukashova, T.A., Coexistence of nonnative and Black Sea species in phytoplankton of north-eastern part of the Black Sea: discussion of invasion hypotheses, Russ. J. Biol. Invasions, 2011, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 256–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Throndsen, J., Hasle, G.R., and Tangen, K., Norsk kystplanktonflora, Oslo: Almater Forlag AS, 2003.Google Scholar
- Vinogradov, M.E., Sapozhnikov, V.V., and Shushkina, E.A., Ekosistema Chernogo morya (Ecosystem of the Black Sea), Moscow: Nauka, 1992.Google Scholar
- World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org. Accessed December 14, 2017.
- Zaiko, A., Zaiko, A., Martinez, J.L., Ardura, A., Clusa, L., Borrell, Y.J., Samuiloviene, A., Roca, A., and Garcia-Vazquez, E., Detecting nuisance species using NGST: methodology short comings and possible application in ballast water monitoring, Mar. Environ. Res., 2015, vol. 112, part B, pp. 64–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.07.002. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar