Gyroscopy and Navigation

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 267–276 | Cite as

Mathematical Analysis for the GPS Carrier Tracking Loop Phase Jitter in Presence of Different Types of Interference Signals

  • Ehab M. ShaheenEmail author


The performance of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver usually depends on the tracking loops, so they can be considered the heart of the GPS receivers. It has been proven that the carrier tracking loop is more sensitive to noise and interference than the code tracking loop. Therefore, the carrier tracking loop can be used as a means for investigating the GPS receiver performance in presence of interference. In this paper, closed form analytical expressions for the carrier tracking loop phase error are derived in presence of different types of interference signals such as continuous wave interference, narrowband interference, partial band interference, broadband interference, match spectrum interference, and pulse interference. Also the carrier-to-noise ratio threshold is analytically derived. The derived analytical expressions have been validated with the aid of simulation experiments.


GPS NBI carrier tracking loop interference signals carrier–to-noise ratio threshold 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kaplan, E.D. and Hegarty, C.J., Eds., Understanding GPS Principles and Applications, Artech House, 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parkinson, B. W. and Spilker, J. J., Eds., Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Washington DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bakker, P. F. d., Effects of radio frequency interference on GNSS receiver output, Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kamel, A. M. M., Context aware high dynamics GNSS-INS for interference mitigation, PhD Thesis, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, 2011.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jang, J., Paonni, M. and Eissfeller, B., CW Interference effects on tracking performance of GNSS receivers, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2012, vol. 48(1), pp. 243–258.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Storm van Leeuwen, S., Electromagnetic Interference on Low Cost GPS Receivers, Amsterdam: National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bek, M. K., Shaheen, E. M. and Elgamel, S. A., Evaluation of the GPS carrier to noise ratio in the presence of different interference signals, IJAIEM, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 458–468.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bek, M. K., Shaheen, E. M. and Elgamel, S. A., Study of interference effects on the GPS receiver correlator, Proc. ICEENG-9, Cairo, Egypt, 2014.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bek, M. K., Shaheen, E. M. and Elgamel, S. A., Classification and mathematical expression of different interference signals on the GPS receiver, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, 2015, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bek, M. K., Shaheen, E. M. and Elgamel, S. A., Mathematical analyses of pulse interference signal on postcorrelation carrier-to-noise ratio for the global positioning system receivers, IET Journal Radar, Sonar and Navigation, 2015, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 266–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borio, D., Anantharamu, P. B and Lachapelle, G., Semi-analytic simulations: an extension to unambiguous BOC tracking, Proc. International Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation, San Diego, CA, 2010, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Razavi, A., Gebre-Egziabher, D. and Akos, D. M., Carrier loop architectures for tracking weak GPS signals, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2008, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 697–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic Warfare Military Technical CollegeCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations