Ecological Status of Populations of the Most Common Bird Species in the Dark-Coniferous Taiga of Baikalia
Nesting home ranges of individual birds were regularly mapped in 2013 and 2014 from May to July along a permanent census route (3.15 km) in the dark-coniferous taiga on the southern slope of the bed of Lake Baikal. Based on the mapping results, the nesting densities and average sizes of the nesting home range of individual birds are estimated for each bird species and raster maps of spatial allocation (MSAs) at a scale of the raster grid of 50 × 50 m are obtained for each species. The degree of spatial conservatism (DSC) for each local population is inferred from the pairwise comparisons of the specific MSAs obtained on the same area (31.5 ha) in different years with the use of the Gamma rank correlation method. The dependence of the population habitat area on the DSC was demonstrated earlier (Cherenkov, 2017). The larger habitat area is found within the sample plot, an a less dependent individual spatial allocation within a population is observed in different years. Based on the estimated specific habitat areas, average sizes of the individual nesting home range, and estimated nesting density, the maximum possible nesting density and habitat saturation are calculated for each species. The population status is inferred from the degree of habitat saturation. Significant DSC estimates (p < 0.05) are obtained for nine species; their habitat areas and saturation are found. It is shown that habitat saturation in nonmigratory birds is twice as high an in migratory ones. On average, habitat saturation was 54–58% in nonmigratory birds and 26% in migratory ones (F = 9.1; p < 0.01). In the two species, the orange-flanked bush-robin (Tarsiger cyanurus Pallas, 1773) and taiga flycatcher (Ficedula (parva) albicilla Pallas, 1811), the habitat saturation is less than 20%, which indicates the presumably troubled status of their populations.
KeywordsSouth Siberian mountains Baikalia Republic of Buryatia dark-coniferous taiga forest-nesting birds (Passeriformes, Piciformes) nesting density area of habitats saturation of habitats maximum density carrying capacity of habitat
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The work would have been impossible without the organizational and friendly support of Deputy Director of Science of the Baikal Nature Reserve Yu.A. Anisimov. A researcher from the reserve, Valentina Anisimova, provided the materials of the “Chronicle of Nature.” Assistance in ensuring field works was provided by Natalya Gamova, Vladimir Yanin, Nikolai Korotkov, and Andrey Konovalov, as well as volunteers Olga Krivoshchapova (Russia, Moscow) and Line Grottian (Germany). A.V. Fil’chagov took the trouble to edit the article. We express sincere gratitude to everybody for their help.
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