Change in Water Composition in the Zone of Influence of Aluminum Production
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An analysis is made of the migration and accumulative ability of pollutants to identify their role in formation of the chemical composition of the water environment using, as an example, the Southern–Minusinsk Depression affected by atmospheric pollution from aluminum production. Information is obtained on the chemical composition of water in atmospheric precipitation, rivers, lakes and deep waters of the background territory which are used as a standard of comparison with the analogs from the zone of atmospheric pollution where the content levels of the main pollutants (F–, Na+, Al3+, and Ni2+) were determined. The fluoride ion was identified as the priority pollutant element, with its weight and toxicity predominating. The area of lands polluted by this element is about 250 km2. It is established that the water component of the initial segment of the hydrosphere in the atmospheric precipitation → soil solutions → waters of the surface runoff → groundwater sequence underwent the largest effect. It is found that the composition of snow water changed from chloride–hydrocarbonate sodium–calcium to sulfate–fluoride sodium aluminum. The composition of rain water changed from chloride–hydrocarbonate calcium–sodium to hydrocarbonate–fluoride calcium–aluminum–sodium. Soil solutions contain in their composition a larger number of HCO3– and Ca2+ ions and are categorized as sulfate–hydrocarbonate calcic with the involvement of F–, Na+ and Mg2+. It is determined that groundwater of the 1st level (as deep as 10 m) remains almost unchanged in its structure but in the vicinity of the plants they contain an increased amount of fluorine. Deep hydrocarbonate magnesium–calcium water used for drinking water supply is characterized by a persistently low fluorine content level. A very small quantity of this element remains in the Yenisei which is 5 km to the south from the emission source. The increased amount of fluorine and aluminum in lakes is caused mainly by natural factors.
Keywordsaluminum smelters pollution atmospheric precipitation (rain snow) soil solutions rivers groundwater
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