Russian Journal of Ecology

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 268–279 | Cite as

Stability and Diversity in Lake Ecosystem Two Decades after Restoration

  • Joanna SenderEmail author
  • Magda Garbowski


Lake Piskory is situated in central-eastern (CE) Poland, in the southeastern part of the Vistula River spillway about 7.5 km from the mouth of the Wieprz River to the Vistula River. Prior to 1993 when restoration activities aimed at reestablishing hydrological function and diversifying habitats were implemented, the area was overgrown with rush vegetation and the water mirror seized to exist. In the initial years post restoration, the lake surface area increased and plant diversity grew. However, since 2000 plant diversity has decreased largely due to the rapid growth of Carex and Phragmites, and the lake is once again being overgrown. Here we document changes in vegetation and water hydro-chemical features from 1993 to 2015 and compare land-use activities from 1973 to 2015 to better understand the causes and implications of these changes. The surface area of the lake varied throughout monitoring years, particular plant communities fluctuated, from 2005 to 2010. During dry years the area of reed rushes visibly grew, while the extent of valuable underwater stonewort meadows contracted and disappeared. Man-made ecosystems often require continuous management action. If active management is not taken in the Lake Piskory region, complete overgrowth of the system is once again possible and the system may transition into a novel ecological status.


lake restoration nature reserve macrophytes habitat changes overgrown 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lunt, I., Enhancing the links between restoration ecology and ecological restoration, Ecol. Manag. Restor., 2001, vol. 2, pp. 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Comin, F.A., Ecological Restoration. A global Challenge, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perrow, M.R. and Davy, A.J., Handbook of Ecological Restoration, vol. 2: Restoration in Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chmielewski, T.J. and Krogulec, J., Ten years of experience in the implementation of environmental engineering in the protection of biodiversity, in Environmental Engineering Studies: Polish Research on the Way to the UE, Pawlowski, L., DudziɄska, M. and Pawlowski, A., Eds., Kluwer, 2003, pp. 431–442.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chmielewski, T.J., Lorens, B., and Radwan, S., Effects of wetland restoration in various ecological conditions and with a different scale of anthropogenic degradation: The case of Central-Eastern Poland, TEKA Commission of Protection and Formation of Natural Environment, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 5–21.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chmielewski, T.J. and Sielewicz, B., Restoration of ecological conditions on the area of Lake Piskory in Pulawy Forest Service, Nat. Rev., 1996, vol. 3–4. 143–148.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chmielewski, T.J., Restoration of Lake Piskory and environmental enrichment of its surrounding, Bull. Bot. Gard. Mus. Collect., 2000, vol. 9, pp. 85–88.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hermanowicz, W., Doska, W., Dojlido, J., and Koziorowski, B., Physical and Chemical Studies of Water and Sewage, Warsaw: Arkady Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vollenweider, R.A., Advances in defining critical loading levels for phosphorus in lakes eutrophication, Mem. Inst. Ital. Idrobiol., 1976, vol. 33, pp. 53–69.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Soszka, H., Pasztaleniec, A., Koprowska, K., Kolada, A., and Ochocka, A., The effect of lake hydromophological alterations on aquatic biota: An overview, Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobow Naturalnych, 2012, vol. 51, pp. 24–52.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carlson, R.E., A trophic state index for lakes, Limnol. Oceanogr., 1977, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Szafer, W. and Zarzycki, K., Szata roślinna Polski (Plant Cover of Poland), PWN Warszawa, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bernatowicz, S., Characteristics of lakes based on vascular plants, Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, 1960, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 79–100.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sender, J., The dynamics of macrophytes in a lake in an agricultural landscape, Limnol. Rev., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 93–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Szmeja, J., Przewodnik do badan roslinnosci wodnej (Characteristics of Lakes Based on Vascular Plants), Gdansk: Gdansk Univ. Publ., 2006.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weiher, E. and Boylen, C.W., Patterns and prediction of a and β diversity of aquatic plants in Adirondack (New York) lakes, Can. J. Bot., 1994, vol. 72, pp. 17971–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krause, W., Süβwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 18: Charales (Charophyceae, Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1997.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matuszkiewicz, W., Przewodnik do oznaczania zbiorowisk roslinnych (A Guide to Identification of Polish Plant Communities), PWN Warsaw, 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choiński, A., Limnologia fizyczna Polski (Physical Limnology of Poland), Poznań: UAM Publ., 2007.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shay, J.M., de Geus, P.M., and Kapinga, M.R.M., Changes in shoreline vegetation over 50 year period in the Delta Marsh, Manoba in response to water levels, Wetlands, 1999, vol. 19, pp. 413–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soszka, H., Assumptions of the project concerning restrictions on the use of lake waters and the use of their catchment, in Ochrona i rekultywacja jezior (Lake Protection and Recultivation), Wiániewski, R., Ed., Toruń: Polskie Zrzeszenie Inzynierów Sanitarnych Oddział w Toruniu, 2010, pp. 115–127.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vestergaard, O. and Sand-Jensen, K., Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2000, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2022–2031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saluja, R. and Garg, J.K., Trophic state assessment of Bhindawas Lake, Haryana, India., Environ. Monit. Assess., 2017, vol. 189, no. 1, p. 32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tarkowska-Kukuryk, M., Effect of phosphorous loadings on macrophytes structure and trophic state of dam reservoir on a small lowland river (Eastern Poland), Arch. Environ. Protect., 2013, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marszelewski, W., Ptak, M., and Skowron, R., Anthropogenic and natural conditionings of disappearance of lakes in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lakeland, Roczniki Gleboznawcze, 2011, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 283–294.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Solis, M., Impact of Wieprz—Krzna canal on physical-chemical and biological characteristics in selected storage reservoirs, Inzynieria Ekologiczna, 2012, vol. 29. pp. 182–191.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sender, J. and Garbowski, M., The relationship between land management and the nature of helophytes in small lakes (Eastern Poland), Limnol. Rev., 2016, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    James, C.J., Fisher, V., Russell, S., Collings, S., and Moss, B., Nitrate availability and hydrophyte species richness in shallow lakes, Freshw. Biol., 2005, vol. 50, pp. 1049–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jeppesen, E., Jensen, J.P., Sondergaard, M., Laurid-sen, T.L., and Landkildehus, F., Trophic structure, species richness and biodiversity in Danish lakes: Changes along a phosphorus gradient, Freshw. Biol., 2000, vol. 45, pp. 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sender, J., Analysis of succession changes occurring in phytocoenoses and macrophyte flora of the lakes studied in the years 1960–2009, in Ekologia krajobrazów hydrogenicznych Rezerwatu Biosfery “Polesie Zachodnie” (The Ecology of Hydrogenic Landscapes in the Polesie Zachodnie Biosphere Reserve), Chmielewski, T.J., Ed., UP Lublin, 2009, pp. 161–190.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sender, J., Changes in structure of macrophyte communities in the chosen lakes of Leczna-Wlodawa Lake District, Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol., 2009, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klosowski, S., Ecology and indicator value of reed communities in natural still waters, Fragm. Florist. Geobot. Pol., 1992, vol. 37, pp. 563–595.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klosowski, S. and Szańkowski, M., Habitat conditions of nymphaeids associations in Poland, Hydrobiologia, 1999, vol. 415, pp. 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dickman, M., Impact of industrial shock loading on the aquatic plant community of a class on wetland in regional Niagara, Ontario, in Proc. Sympos. Wet-lands/Peatlands, Rubec, C.D.A. and Overend, R.P., Eds., Edmonton, 1988, pp. 307–316.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Clayton, J. and Edwards, T., Aquatic plants as environmental indicators of ecological condition in New Zealand lakes, in Macrophytes in Aquatic Ecosystems: From Biology to Management, Dordrecht: Springer, 2006, pp. 147–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Körner, S., Loss of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes in north-eastern Germany, Int. Rev. Hydrobiol., 2002, vol. 87, no. 4, pp.375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lacoul, P. and Freedman, B., Environmental influences on aquatic plants in freshwater ecosystems, Environ. Rev., 2006, vol. 14, pp. 89–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weisner, S.E., Strand, A.J., and Sandsten, H., Mechanisms regulating abundance of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes, Oecologia, 1997, vol. 109, pp. 592–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scheffer, M., Hosper, S.H., Meijer, M.L., Moss, B., and Jeppesen, E., Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes, Trends Ecol. Evol., 1993, vol. 8, pp. 275–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pelechaty, M. and Pronin, E., The role of aquatic and rush vegetation in the functioning of lakes and assessment of the state of their waters, Stud. Limnol. Telmatol., 2015, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25–34.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chmielewski, T.J. and Chmielewski, S., The process of lake and bog ecosystems disappearance in the region of Polesie National Park since the second half of the 20th century and the prospects of their protection, Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu, 2010, vol. 26, pp. 121–134.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zimniewicz, S., Overgrowing of lakes in the Leszno Lakeland. Interference or observe? Biuletyn Parków Krajobrazowych Wielkopolski, 2014, vol. 20, no. 22, pp. 94–96.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Furey, P.C., Nordin, R.N., and Mazumder, A., Water level drawdown affects physical and biogeochemical properties of littoral sediments of a reservoir and a natural lake, Lake Reserv. Manag., 2004, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 280–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moss, B., The kingdom of the shore: Achievement of good ecological potential in reservoirs, Freshw. Rev., 2008, vol. 1, pp. 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burns, C.W., Schallenberg, M., and Verburg, P., Potential use of classical biomanipulation to improve water quality in New Zealand lakes: A re-evaluation, N. Z. J. Mar. Fresh. Res., 2014, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hydrobiology and Protection of EcosystemsUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland
  2. 2.Bioagricultural Science and Pest ManagementColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations