Annual Nutritional Organ Mass Cycle of Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842) in Response to Extreme High Temperature
The annual relative mass of storage organs cycle of Bufo gargarizans in southwestern China was studied from December 2005 to November 2006. We described how those organs changed in response to extreme temperatures. Energy reservation dropped to the lowest levels after dormancy for both sexes, and then increased for period of 4.25 month. However, the mass of these organs dropped again rapidly until August (liver) and September (fat bodies) due to the constraint from extreme high temperature occurred during the summer, and then non-significantly increased before hibernation. For ovaries, varied with a different profile to those of liver and fat bodies have a resting period of four months. In addition, the toads’ ovaries kept growing when the mass of liver and fat bodies declining accordingly during hibernation. Therefore, ovarian mass increased during the hibernation and non-hibernation period.
KeywordsBufo gargarizans body reserves ovarian mass extreme high temperature
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Lu, X., Annual cycle of nutritional organ mass in a temperate- zone anuran, Rana chensinensis, from northern China, Herpetol. J., 2004, vol. 14, pp. 9–12.Google Scholar
- 5.Pocrnjic, Z., The influence of thermal adaptation on oxygen consumption of the newt (Triturus vulgaris), Arch. Biol. Nauka, 1965, vol. 17, pp. 139–148.Google Scholar
- 12.Fei, L. and Ye, C.Y., The Colour Handbook of Amphibians of Sichuan, Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 2001.Google Scholar
- 13.Yu, T.L. and Guo, Y.S., Overwintering habitat selection of Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans, in southwestern China, Biharean Biologist, 2010, vol. 4, pp.15–18.Google Scholar
- 16.Yu, T.L., Guo, Y.S., Du, J. and Lu, X., Seasonal variation and ontogenetic change in the diet of a population of Bufo gargarizans from the farmland, Sichuan, China, Biharean Biologist, 2009, vol. 3, pp. 98–103.Google Scholar
- 18.Liu, Y., Comparison of the liver coefficient and relative fatness of hibernation and non-hibernation Bufo gargarizans, Rana nigromaculata, Pelodiscus sinensis and Nyctalus noctule, The 65th Anniversary of the Establishment of Zoological Society of China, 1999, pp. 1197–1198.Google Scholar
- 19.Kozlowska, M., Difference in the reproductive biology of mountain and lowland common frog Rana temporaria L., Acta Biol. Cracov., Ser. Zool., 1971, vol. 14, pp. 17–32.Google Scholar
- 20.Smith, G.L., Seasonal changes in blood sugar, fat body, liver glycogen, and gonads in the common frog, Rana temporaria, J. Exp. Biol., 1950, vol. 11, pp. 73–80.Google Scholar
- 21.Jørgensen, C.B., Larsen, L.O. and Lofts, B., Annual cycles of fat bodies and gonads in the toad Bufo bufo bufo (L.), compared with cycles in other temperate zone anurans, Biologiske Skrifter, 1979, vol. 22, pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
- 22.Juszcyzk, W. and Zamachowski, W., Morphological changes in the reproductive organs of the female edible frog (Rana esculenta L.) in the annual cycle, Acta Biol. Cracov., Ser. Zool, 1973, vol. 16, pp. 167–178.Google Scholar
- 25.Pinder, A.W., Storey, K.B. and Ultsch, G.R., Estivation and hibernation, in Environmental Biology of the Amphibia, Feder, M.E. and Burggren, W.W., Eds., Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1992, pp. 250–274.Google Scholar
- 26.Zou, S.C., The changes of part internal organs of Bufo gargarizans in hibernation, J. Xuzhou Norm. Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 1985, vol. 1, pp. 102–103.Google Scholar