Physics of Particles and Nuclei

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 639–651 | Cite as

Cosmic Ray Muons of High and Ultrahigh Energies

  • A. A. PetrukhinEmail author
  • A. G. Bogdanov
  • R. P. Kokoulin


Muons are the main component of cosmic rays on the Earth’s surface and underground. The energy spectrum and angular distribution of muons in the atmosphere are related both to the mechanisms of their generation and to the basic characteristics of the primary cosmic rays—their energy spectrum and mass composition. Changes in the muon flux underground are determined by muon energy losses, and its measurements allow muon interaction processes to be studied. The history of extensive cosmic-ray muon investigations covers many decades. A retrospective overview of important directions of cosmic ray muon studies is presented, and analysis of the main experiments and results is given. Special attention is paid to the “muon puzzle”, that is, the muon excess increasing with the energy of primary particles, and to possible ways of solving it.



The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (State Assignment and MEPhI Academic Excellence Project 02.a03.21.0005).


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Petrukhin
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. G. Bogdanov
    • 1
  • R. P. Kokoulin
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)MoscowRussia

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