The Nature of Variations in Anomalies of the Chemical Composition of the Solar Corona with the 11-Year Cycle
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Evidence that the distribution of the abundances of admixtures with low first-ionization potentials (FIP < 10 eV) in the lower solar corona could be associated with the typology of the largescale magnetic field is presented. Solar observations show an enhancement in the abundances of elements with low FIPs compared to elements with high FIPs (>10 eV) in active regions and closed magnetic configurations in the lower corona. Observations with the ULYSSES spacecraft and at the Stanford Solar Observatory have revealed strong correlations between the manifestation of the FIP effect in the solar wind, the strength of the open magnetic flux (without regard to sign), and the ratio of the large-scale toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields at the solar surface. Analyses of observations of the Sun as a star show that the enhancement of the abundances of admixtures with low FIPs in the corona compared to their abundances in the photosphere (the FIP effect) is closely related to the solar-activity cycle and also with variations in the topology of the large-scale magnetic field. A possible mechanism for the relationship between the FIP effect and the spectral type of a star is discussed in the framework of solar–stellar analogies.
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