Journal of Mining Science

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 561–568 | Cite as

Initiation of Tectonic Earthquakes during Underground Mining

  • G. G. KocharyanEmail author
  • A. M. Budkov
  • S. B. Kishkina
Rock Failure


The influence of underground mine workings arranged nearby faults on the initiation of large seismic event is considered. Numerical modeling proves that amount of underground mine workings affects actual stiffness of rocks and initiates dynamic movements accompanied by intensive seismic radiation. As rock mass quality worsens, the effective shear modulus drops. The calculations show that the effective shear modulus lowers by 20% for the stopes on the same level, decreases 1.5 times in case of the stopes arranged on two levels and nearly halves for three levels. Such reduction in the actual shear stiffness of rock mass may be critical in terms of initiation of dynamic shift along a fault.


Induced seismicity induced earthquakes underground mine workings monitoring effective rock mass stiffness faulting zones Coulomb stress modeling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adushkin, V.V., Induced Tectonic Earthquakes, Izv. RAN, Fizika Zemli, 2016, no. 2, pp. 22–44.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lovchikov, A.V., Review of the Strongest Rock Bursts Mining-Induced Earthquakes in Russia, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 572–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nazarov, L.A., Nazarova, L.A., Yaroslavtsev, A.F., Miroshnichenko, N.A., and Vasil’eva, E.V., Evolution of Stress Fields and Induced Seismicity in Operating Mines, J. Min. Sci., 2011, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 707–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adushkin, V.V., Development of Technogenic-Tectonic Seismicity in Kuzbass, Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2018, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 709–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mel’nikov, N.N. (Ed.), Seismichnost’ pri gornykh rabotakh (Mining-Related Seismicity), Apatity: KNTS RAN, 2002.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kurlenya, M.V., Eremenko, A.A., and Shrepp, B.V., Geomekhanicheskie problemy razrabotki zhelezorudnykh mestorozhdenii Sibiri (Geomechanic Problems in Mining of Iron Ore Deposits in Siberia), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2011.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shemyakin, E.I., Kurlenya, M.V., and Kulakov, G.I., Classification of Rock Bursts, J. Min. Sci., 1986, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 329–336.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kocharyan, G.G., Geomekhanika razlomov (Geomechanics of Faulting), Moscow: Geos, 2016.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heesakkers, V., Murphy, S., Lockner, D. A., and Reches Z., Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth. Part II: Mechanics of the 2004 M 2.2 Earthquake along the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa, 2011, vol. 168, pp. 2427–2449.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snelling, P., Godin, L., and McKinnon. S., The Role of Geologic Structure and Stress in Triggering Remote Seismicity in Creighton Mine, Sudbury, Canada, Int. J. of Rock Mech. & Mining Sciences, 2013, vol. 58, pp. 166–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Turchaninov, I.A., Markov, G.A., Ivanov, V.I., and Kozyrev, A.A. Tektonicheskie napryazheniya i ustoichivost’ gornykh vyrabotok (Tectonic Stress and Stability in Mines), Leningrad: Nauka, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kurlenya, M.V., Eremenko, A.A., and Bashkov, V.I., Effect of Blasting on Seismic Activity and Dynamic Events in Rockburst-Hazardous Underground Mines in Siberia, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2015, no. 8, pp. 69–71.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petukhov, I.M., Il’in, A.M., and Trubetskoy, K.N. (Eds.), Prognoz i predotvraschenie gornykh udarov na rudnikakh (Prediction and Prevention of Rock Bursts in Mines), Moscow: AGN, 1997.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eremenko, A.A., Seryakov, V.M., and Gakhova, L.N., Geomechanical Validation of the Parameters and Technique for Damping Layer in the Vicinity of Underground Excavation for Overburden Pressure Relief, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 665–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibowicz, S.J. and Kijko, A., An Introduction to Mining Seismology, San Diego: Academic Press Inc., 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Knoll, P. and Kuht, W., Seismological and Technical Investigations of the Mechanics of Rock Bursts, Proc. 2nd Symp. on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, C. Fairhurst (Ed.), Balkema, Rotterdam, 1988.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malovichko, A.A., Zav’yalov, A.D., Kozyrev, A.A, et al., Gornye udary (Rock Bursts), Moscow: Kruk, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 243–293.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tomilin, N.G. and Voinov, K.A., Monitoring of In Situ Rock Stress Based on Variations in Earthquake Recurrence Time, Metodicheskie osnovy kontrolya sostoyaniya prirodnogo massiva i prognoza dinamicheskikh yavlenii (Monitoring of in Situ Rock Stress and Prediction of Dynamic Events: Methodological Background), Moscow, 1994, pp. 7–24.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dyagilev, R.A., Seismological Prediction at Mines of the West Urals, Candidate Phys.-Math. Sci. Thesis, Moscow, 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rodkin, M.V. and Rundkvist, D.V., Geoflyuidodinamika. Prilozhenie k seismologii, tektonike, protsessam rudo- i neftegeneza (Fluid Dynamics in Rocks. Supplement to Seismology, Tectonics, and Formation of Petroleum and Mineral Fields), Dolgoprudnyi: Intellekt, 2017.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kocharyan, G.G., Ostapchuk, A.A., and Martynov V.S., Alteration of Fault Deformation Mode under Fluid Injection, J. Min. Sci., 2017, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 216–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lovchikov, A.V. and Savchenko, S.N., Estimate and After-Effect of Stress State Alteration in Rocks after Umbozero Mine Flooding, GIAB, 2014, no. 11, pp. 213–222.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lovchikov, A.V. and Savchenko, S.N., Stress State of Rocks near Stopes in the Karnasurt Mine, Vestn. Mooremansk. GTU, 2013, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 741–747.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    King, G.C.P., Stein, R.S., and Lin Jian, Static Stress Changes and the Triggering of Earthquakes, Seismological Society of America Bulletin, 1994, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 935–953.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    McGarr A., Moment Tensors of Ten Witwatersrand Mine Tremors, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 1992, vol. 139, pp. 781–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lovchikov, A.V., Review of the Strongest Rockbursts and Mining-Induced Earthquakes in Russia, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 572–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lovchikov, A.V., Geodynamic Hazard at Mineral Deposits: Assessment from Energy of Seismic Effects in Mines, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2004, no. 10, pp. 43–47.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sadovsky, M.A., Bolkhovitinov, L.G., and Pisarenko, V.F., Deformirovanie geofizicheskoi sredy i seismicheskii protsess (Deformation of Rocks and the Seismic Process), Moscow: Nauka, 1987.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kocharyan, G.G. and Spivak, A.A., Dinamika deformirovaniya blochnykh massivov gornykh porod (Deformation Dynamics of Faulted Rocks), Moscow: Akademkniga, 2003.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kozhurin, A.I., Ponomareva, V.V., and Pinegina, T.K., Active Faulting in the Southern Central Kamchatka, Vestn. KRAUNTS. Nauki o Zemle, 2008, issue 12, no. 2, pp. 10–27.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Syrnikov, N.M. and Triapitsyn, V.M., Mechanisms of Mining-Induced Earthquakes in the Khibiny Mountains, DAN SSSR, 1990, vol. 314, no. 4, pp. 830–833.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arkhipov, V.N., Borisov, V.A., and Budkov, A.M., Mekhanicheskoe deistvie yadernogo vzryva (Mechanic Effects of Nuclear Explosion), Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2003.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kocharyan, G.G., Zolotukhin, S.R., Kalinin, E.V., Panasiyaian, L.L., and Spungin, V.G., Stress-Strain State of Rock Mass in the Zone of Tectonic Fractures in the Korobkovo Iron Ore Deposit, J. Min. Sci., 2018, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nur, A., Mavko, G., Dvorkin, J., and Galmudi, D., Critical Porosity: A Key to Relating Physical Properties to Porosity in Rocks, The Leading Edge, 1998, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. G. Kocharyan
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. M. Budkov
    • 1
  • S. B. Kishkina
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geosphere DynamicsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations