Patterns of Mitosis and Activation of the Map-Kinase Cascade during Tadpole Tail Regeneration in the Refractory Period of Xenopus laevis Development
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Patterns of mitotic cells’ distribution and activation of the MAP-kinase cascade during the regeneration of Xenopus laevis tadpole tails were studied before and during the refractory period. It is known that the tadpoles of Xenopus laevis are able to fully restore the full structure of the tail after amputation. However, in the refractory period (stage 45–47), the ability to regenerate is significantly reduced, until its complete absence. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We conducted a comparative analysis of the average number of mitotic cells on 0–4 days post amputation in normally regenerating tails and in tails amputated during the refractory period. A significant decrease in the number of proliferating cells throughout the surface of the tail in the refractory period compared with their sharp increase in the blastema area in normally regenerating tadpoles was shown. In addition, we detected activation of the MAP-kinase cascade (dpERK1/2) during normal regeneration and demonstrated its full inhibition during the refractory period. At the same time, in the distal part of the tail amputated in the refractory period, activation of the expression of the regenerative marker gene Fgf20 was not detected. Thus, we can conclude that the blocking of the regenerative capacity in tadpoles during the refractory period is accompanied by a sharp suppression of the mitotic activity of the cells and a misregulation of the activation of the Fgf–MAP-kinase cascade in the tail after amputation.
Keywordstadpoles of Xenopus laevis regeneration refractory period MAP-kinase cascade dpERK1/2 mitoses regenerative marker gene Fgf20
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