Biology Bulletin

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 368–375 | Cite as

Cranometric Variability in Brown Bears of the Russian Far East

  • V. Yu. GuskovEmail author
  • I. N. Sheremetyeva
  • I. V. Seryodkin
  • O. Yu. Tyutenkov


Morphometric analysis of 282 skulls of the brown bear Ursus arctos from the Far Eastern part of the range was carried out. The presence of two morphological clusters for both males and females is shown. Samples from two clusters were compared with their geographical location and subspecies. It was found that one cluster or another had no specific reference to the particular region or subspecies of a particular cluster, only the superiority of one over the other in a cluster of different subspecies and regions was changed. A comparison with the spread of brown bear genetic lines in the Far East of Russia is made. It was noted that the precise distribution of a particular cluster to a specific genetic line of haplotypes was not found.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aristov, A.A. and Baryshnikov, G.F., Mlekopitayushchie fauny Rossii i sopredel’nykh territorii. Khishchnye i lastonogie (Mammals of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Carnivores and Pinnipeds), St. Petersburg: ZIN RAN, 2001.Google Scholar
  2. Baryshnikov, G.F., Medvezh’i (Carnivora, Ursidae) (Bears (Carnivora, Ursidae)), St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. Baryshnikov, G.F., Spatiotemporal variability of morphological traits of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) of Eurasia, in Mater. IV Mezhdunar. Mamontovoi konf (Proc. IV Int. Mammoth Conf.), Yakutsk: ARGO, 2010, pp. 115–121.Google Scholar
  4. Baryshnikov, G.F. and Puzachenko, A.Yu., Craniometric diversity of island populations of brown bear (Ursus arctos, Carnivora) from Hokkaido, Sakhalin, and South Kuriles, Tr. ZIN RAN, 2009, vol. 313, no. 2, pp. 119–142.Google Scholar
  5. Baryshnikov, G.F., Mano, T., and Masuda, R., Taxonomic differentiation of Ursus arctos (Carnivora, Ursidae) from south Okhotsk Sea islands on the basis of morphometrical analysis of skull and teeth, Russ. J. Theriol., 2004, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 77–88.Google Scholar
  6. Boeskorov, G.G. and Puzachenko, A.Yu., Geographic variation of the skull and antlers of the elk (Alces, Arthiodactyla) of the Holarctic, Zool. Zh., 2001, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 97–110.Google Scholar
  7. Boeskorov, G.G., Puzachenko, A.Yu., and Baryshnikov, G.F., The problem of geographic variability of the brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) of Yakutia, Byul. Mosk. Obshch. Ispytat. Prirody. Otd. Biol., 2011, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 3–9.Google Scholar
  8. Cattell, R.B., The scree test for the number of factors, Multivariate Behav. Res., 1966, no. 1, pp. 245–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chernyavskii, F.B., The taxonomy and history of the brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) in the Bering sector of the Subarctic, in Biogeogafiya Beringiiskogo sektora Subarktiki (Biogeography of the Bering Sector of the Subarctic), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 1986, pp. 182–193.Google Scholar
  10. Chernyavskii, F.B. and Krechmar, M.A., Buryi medved’ (Ursus arctos L.) na Severo-Vostoke Sibiri (Brown Bear (Ursus arctos L.) in Northeastern Siberia), Magadan: IBPS DVO RAN, 2001.Google Scholar
  11. Davison, M., Mnogomernoe shkalirovanie. Metody naglyadnogo predstavleniya dannykh (Multidimensional Scaling: Data Visualization Methods), Moscow: Finansy i statistika, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. Davison, J., Ho, S.Y.W., Bray, S.C., Korsten, M., Tammeleht, E., Hindrikson, M., Østbye, K., Østbye, E., Lauritzen, S.-E., Austin, J., Cooper, A., and Saarma, U., Late-Quaternary biogeographic scenarios for the brown bear (Ursus arctos), a wild mammal model species, Quat. Sci. Rev., 2011, vol. 30, pp. 418–430.Google Scholar
  13. Gus’kov, V.Yu., Method for determination of the age of the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 by the skull, Usp. Nauk Zhizni, 2014, no. 2, pp. 137–141.Google Scholar
  14. Gus’kov, V.Yu., Sheremetyeva, I.N., Seredkin, I.V., and Kryukov, A.P., Molecular genetic features of the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 of the Sikhote-Alin Mountain Range, in Mater. Mezhdunar. mol. konf. “Genetika zhivotnykh i rastenii–fundamental’nye problemy i sovremennye eksperimental’nye podkhody” (Proc. Int. Youth Conf. “Genetics of Plants and Animals: Basic Problems and Modern Experimental Approaches”), Tomsk, 2012, pp. 38–44.Google Scholar
  15. Gus’kov, V.Yu., Sheremetyeva, I.N., Seredkin, I.V., and Kryukov, A.P., Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene variation in brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) from southern part of Russian Far East, Russ. J. Genet., 2013, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1213–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. James, F.C. and McCulloch, C.E., Multivariate analysis in ecology and systematic: panacea or Pandora’s box?, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 1990, vol. 21, pp. 129–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klevezal’, G.A., Printsipy i metody opredeleniya vozrasta mlekopitayushchikh (Principles and Methods for Determining the Age of Mammals), Moscow: Tovar. Nauch. Izd. KMK, 2007.Google Scholar
  18. Kruskal, J.B., Mnogomernoe shkalirovanie i drugie metody poiska struktury. Statisticheskie metody dlya EVM (Multidimensional Scaling and Other Pattern Search Methods: Statistical Methods for Computers), Moscow: Nauka, 1986, рр. 301–347.Google Scholar
  19. Kruskal, J.B. and Wish, M., Multidimensional scaling, Sage Univ. Paper Ser.: Qualit. Appl. Soc. Sci., 1978, no. 07 –011.Google Scholar
  20. Leonard, J.A., Wayne, R.K., and Cooper, A., Population genetics of ice age brown bears, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2000, vol. 97, pp. 1651–1654.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Masuda, R., Murata, K., Aiurzaniin, A., and Yoshida, M.C., Phylogenetic status of brown bears Ursus arctos of Asia: a preliminary result inferred from mitochondrial dna control region sequences, Hereditas, 1998, vol. 128, pp. 277–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Masuda, R., Amano, T., and Ono, H., Ancient dna analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos) remains from the archeological site of Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan, Zool. Sci., 2001, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 741–751.Google Scholar
  23. Matsuhashi, T., Masuda, R., Mano, T., and Yoshida, M.C., Microevolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the Japanese brown bear (Ursus arctos) population, Mol. Biol. Evol., 1999, vol. 16, pp. 676–684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Matsuhashi, T., Masuda, R., Mano, T., Murata, K., and Aiurzaniin, A., Phylogenetic relationships among worldwide populations of the brown bear Ursus arctos, Zool. Sci., 2001, vol. 18, pp. 1137–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ognev, S.I., Zveri vostochnoi Evropy i severnoi Azii. Khishchnye mlekopitayushchie (Animals of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Carnivorous Mammals), Moscow: Glavnauka, 1931, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  26. Ohdachi, S., Aoi, T., Mano, T., and Tsubota, T., Growth, sexual dimorphism, and geographical variation of skull dimensions of the brown bear Ursus arctos in Hokkaido, J. Mamm. Soc. Jpn., 1992, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 27–47.Google Scholar
  27. Pazhetnov, V.S., Buryi medved’ (Brown Bear), Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1990.Google Scholar
  28. Perovskii, M.D., Morphology and ecology of the brown bear on the Kunashir Island, in Medvedi v SSSR (Bears in the USSR), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1991.Google Scholar
  29. Puzachenko, A.Yu., Intrapopulation variability of the skull of the greater mole rat, Spalax microphthalmus (Spalacidae, Rodentia). 1. The method of data analysis, age-unrelated variability of males, Zool. Zh., 2001, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 343–357.Google Scholar
  30. Puzachenko, Yu.G., Matematicheskie metody v ekologicheskikh i geograficheskikh issledovaniyakh (Mathematical Methods in Ecological and Geographical Studies), Moscow: Akademiya, 2004.Google Scholar
  31. Puzachenko, A.Yu., Skull variability in mole rats of the genus Nannospalax (Spalacidae, Rodentia), Zool. Zh., 2006, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 235–253.Google Scholar
  32. Salomashkina, V.V., Tyuten’kov, O.Yu., Moskvitina, N.S., and Kholodova, M.V., Analysis of variation of the mtDNA control region of brown bears in Siberia: preliminary results, in Mater. mezhdunar. mol. konf. “Genetika zhivotnykh i rastenii–fundamental’nye problemy i sovremennye eksperimental’nye podkhody” (Proc. Int. Youth Conf. “Genetics of Plants and Animals: Basic Problems and Modern Experimental Approaches”), Tomsk, 2012, pp. 99–102.Google Scholar
  33. Salomashkina, V.V., Kholodova, M.V., Tyuten’kov, O.Yu., Moskvitina, N.S., and Erokhin, N.G., New data on the phylogeography and genetic diversity of the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 of Northeastern Eurasia (mtDNA control region polymorphism analysis), Biol. Bull. (Moscow), 2014, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sheremetev, I.S. and Sheremeteva, I.N., Irreversible microevolutionary changes in genotypic composition of sika deer Cervus nippon populations in response to vegetation degradation and food shortage, Acta Theriol., 2010, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sheremetyeva, I.N., Geographic variation of the craniometric parameters of the reed vole, Microtus fortis (Rodentia, Cricetidae), Zool. Zh., 2007, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 751–760.Google Scholar
  36. Sheremetyeva, I.N. and Sheremetyev, I.S., Skull variation in the Siberian roe deer Capreolus pygargus from the Far East: a revision of the distribution of the subspecies, Eur. J. Wildlife Res., 2008, vol. 54, pp. 557–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sheremetyeva, I.N. and Sheremetyev, I.S., Ecotypes, populations, and subspecies of the Siberian roe deer, Capreolus pygargus Pall., 1771 (Artodactyla, Cervidae) in the Far-Eastern part of the range, Zool. Zh., 2009, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 488–497.Google Scholar
  38. Sheremetyeva, I.N., Kartavtseva, I.V., Voyta, L.L., Kryukov, A.P., and Haring, E., Morphometric analysis of intraspecific variation in Microtus maximowiczii (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in relation to chromosomal differentiation with reinstatement of Microtus gromovi Vorontsov, Boeskorov, Lyapunova et Revin, 1988, stat. nov., J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 2009, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 42–48.Google Scholar
  39. StatSoft, Inc., STATISTICA for Windows (Computer Program Manual), Tulsa, OK: StatSoft, Inc., 1995. Scholar
  40. Stroganov, S.U., Zveri Sibiri. Khishchnye (Animals of Siberia. Carnivores), Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1962.Google Scholar
  41. Tsuruga, H., Mano, T., and Yamanaka, M., Estimate of genetic variation in Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) by DNA fingerprinting, Jpn. J. Vet. Res., 1994, vol. 42, pp. 127–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams, W.T. and Lance, D.N., Metody ierarkhicheskoi klassifikatsii. Statisticheskie metody dlya EVM (Methods of Hierarchical Classification. Statistical Methods for Computers), Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  43. Yoneda, M. and Abe, H., Sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of the Ezo brown hear (Ursus arctos yesoensis), Mem. Faculty Agric. Hokkaido Univ., 1976, vol. 9, pp. 265–276.Google Scholar
  44. Yudin, V.G., The morphology of the brown bear of the Far East, in Medvedi v SSSR (Bears in the USSR), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1991, pp. 219–233.Google Scholar
  45. Zavatskii, B.P., Brown bear of the Yenisei taiga, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Zavatskii, B.P., Ed., IEMEZh im. A.N. Severtsova, AN SSSR, 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Yu. Guskov
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. N. Sheremetyeva
    • 1
  • I. V. Seryodkin
    • 2
    • 3
  • O. Yu. Tyutenkov
    • 4
  1. 1.Federal Scientific Center of East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far East BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia
  2. 2.Pacific Geographical Institute, Far East BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia
  3. 3.Far Eastern Federal UniversityVladivostokRussia
  4. 4.National Research Tomsk State UniversityTomskRussia

Personalised recommendations