Advertisement

Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 74, Issue 11, pp 1073–1080 | Cite as

Optimization of Air-assisted Liquid–liquid Microextraction by Box–behnken Design for Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium in Water Samples

  • Elnaz Koosha
  • Majid RamezaniEmail author
  • Ali Niazi
ARTICLES
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

In this research, a fast, simple and highly efficient sample pretreatment technique based on air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction (AALLME) followed by UV−Vis spectrophotometric detection has been applied for the preconcentration and determination of palladium in water samples. 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and chloroform were used as a chelating agent and extraction solvent, respectively. Parameters affecting AALLME, including pH of sample solution, concentration of PAN, volume of extraction solvent and number of extraction cycles were studied and optimized using Box–Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 5–700 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.996. Detection limit, enrichment factor, intra- and inter-day precision were 0.7 ng/mL, 193, 1.3 and 1.8%, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace amounts of palladium in environmental water samples.

Keywords:

palladium air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction UV−Vis spectrophotometry Box–Behnken design water samples 

Notes

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Krishna, M., Ranjit, M., Chandrasekaran, K., Venkateswarlu, G., and Karunasagar, D., Talanta, 2009, vol. 79, p. 1454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merget, R. and Rosner, G., Sci. Total Environ., 2001, vol. 270, p. 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taher, M.A., Daliri, Z., and Fazelirad, H., Chin. Chem. Lett., 2014, vol. 25, p. 649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakajima, J., Ohno, M., Chikama, K., Seki, T., and Oguma, K., Talanta, 2009, vol. 79, p. 1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liang, P., Zhao, E., and Li, F., Talanta, 2009, vol. 77, p. 1854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Niazi, A., Jafarian, B., and Ghasemi, J., Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 2008, vol. 71, p. 841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vaezzadeh, M., Shemirani, F., and Majidi, B., Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010, vol. 48, p. 1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kozani, R.R., Mofid-Nakhaei, J., and Jamali, M.R., Environ. Monit. Assess., 2013, vol. 185, p. 6531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heydari, F. and Ramezani, M., Sep. Sec. Technol., 2017, vol. 52, p. 1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Afzali, D., Jamshidi, R., Ghaseminezhad, S., and Afzali, Z., Arab. J. Chem., 2012, vol. 5, p. 461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chwastowska, J., Skwara, W., Sterlińska, E., and Pszonicki, L., Talanta, 2004, vol. 64, p. 224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsogas, G.Z., Giokas, D.L., Vlessidis, A.G., and Evmiridis, N.P., Talanta, 2008, vol. 76, p. 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tavakoli, L., Yamini, Y., Ebrahimzadeh, H., Nezhadali, A., Shariati, S., and Nourmohammadian, F., J. Hazard. Mater., 2008, vol. 152, p. 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fang, J., Liu, L., and Yan, X., Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 2006, vol. 61, p. 864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soylak, M. and Tuzen, M., J. Hazard. Mater., 2008, vol. 152, p. 656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hassanien, M.M., Microchim. Acta, 2009, vol. 167, p. 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Farhadi, K. and Teimouri, G., Talanta, 2005, vol. 65, p. 925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lokhande, T.N., Anuse, M.A., and Chavan, M.B., Talanta, 1998, vol. 46, p. 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anthemidis, A.N., Themelis, D.G., and Stratis, J.A., Talanta, 2001, vol. 54, p. 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shemirani, F., Rahnama, R.K., Jamali, M.R., Assadi, Y., and Milani-Hosseini, M.R., Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 2006, vol. 86, p. 1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shokoufi, N., Shemirani, F., and Assadi, Y., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2007, vol. 597, p. 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bahar, S. and Zakerian, R., Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng., 2014, vol. 33, p. 51.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Regueiro, J., Llompart, M., Jares, C.G., Monteagudo, J.C., and Cela, R., J. Chromatogr. A, 2008, vol. 1190, p. 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Regueiro, J., Llompart, M., Psillakis, E., Garcia-Monteagudo, J.C., and Jares, C.G., Talanta, 2009, vol. 79, p. 1387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yebra-Pimentel, I., Martínez-Carballo, E., Regueiro, J., and Simal-Gándara, J., Food Chem., 2013, vol. 139, p. 1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang, Z.H., Liu, D.H., Zhao, W.T., Wu, T., Zhou, Z.Q., and Wang, P., J. Sep. Sci., 2013, vol. 36, p. 916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Farajzadeh, M.A. and Mogaddam, M.R.A., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2012, vol. 728, p. 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Box, G.E.P., Hunter, J.S., and Hunter, W.G., Statistics for Experimenters: Design, Innovation, and Discovery, New York: Wiley, 2005, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Candioti, L.V., De-Zan, M.M., Cámara, M.S., and Goicoechea, H.C., Talanta, 2014, vol. 124, p. 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lu, J., Feng, X., Han, Y., and Xue, C., J. Sci. Food Agric., 2014, vol. 94, p. 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kamarei, F., Ebrahimzadeh, H., and Yamini, Y., Microchem. J., 2011, vol. 99, p. 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ragheb, E., Hashemi, P., Alizadeh, K., and Ganjali, M.R., Anal. Sci., 2015, vol. 31, p. 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Citak, D., and Tuzen, M., Desalin. Water Treat., 2013, vol. 53, p. 2686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pouyan, M., Bagherian, G., and Goudarzi, N., Microchem. J., 2016, vol. 127, p. 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ezoddin, M., Abdi, K., and Lamei, N., Talanta, 2016, vol. 153, p. 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ezoddin, M., Majidi, B., and Abdi, K., J. Mol. Liq., 2015, vol. 209, p. 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityArakIran

Personalised recommendations