Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 71–80 | Cite as

Combination of Ultrasonication and Induced Emulsion Breaking for Efficient Extraction of Wear Metals from Lubricating Oils with Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry Determination

  • Yousef Al-DalahmehEmail author
  • Hassan M. Al-SwaidanEmail author
  • Ahmad H. Al-Ghamdi


This work proposed a procedure based on combining the advantages of ultrasonic extraction and extraction induced by emulsion breaking techniques to enhance the extraction efficiency of metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb) from oil samples. In the first part, extraction induced by emulsion breaking used to analyse composition and contaminants of lubricating oils. It is found that differences and diversities in oil samples leads to difficulty in separation of the aqueous phase from oil, which gives low metals recovery. In the second part, the oil samples were analyzed using the combination procedure, where all extraction phases were completely separated. A circulation bath was used as separation medium, which provided a clearer aqueous part. The oil phase is completely separated from the aqueous phase and two phases are stable for hours without any interference between them. In comparison with previous works that did not collect more than 75%, the proposed method collects almost 95% of the aqueous phase for further inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis.


lubricating oil wear metals extraction by emulsion breaking ultrasonic extraction 



This project was supported by King Saud University, Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Science, Research Center, Riyadh, KSA.


  1. 1.
    Policy Brief on Waste Oil: What, Why and How, Osaka: Int. Enviro. Technol. Centre, 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vazquez-Duhalt, R., Sci. Total Environ., 1989, vol. 79, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aucélio, R.Q., De Souza, R.M., De Campos, C.R., Miekeley, N., and Da Silveira, C.L.P., Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 2007, vol. 62, p. 952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akintunde, W.O., Olugbenga, O.A., Olufemi, O.O., and Maced, O.A., J. Med. Sci., 2015, vol. 3, p. 46.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramadass, K., Megharaj, M., Venkateswarlu, K., and Naidu, R., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2015, vol. 85, p. 72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cassella, R.J., Brum, D.M., Robaina, N.F., and Rocha, A.A., and Lima, C.F., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, vol. 27, p. 364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker, J.S. and Dietze, H.J., Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 1998, vol. 53, p. 1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duyck, C., Miekeley, N., Da Silveira, C.L.P., and Szatmari, P., Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 2002, vol. 57, p. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Souza, R.M., Saraceno, A.L., and Duyck, C., Da Silveira, C.L.P., and Aucélio, R.Q., Microchem. J., 2007, vol. 87, p. 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maryutina, T.A. and Soin, A.V., Anal. Chem., 2009, vol. 81, p. 5896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cassella, R.J., Brum, D.M., de Paula, C.E.R., and Lima, C.F., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2010, vol. 81, p. 1704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakircioglu, D., Kurtulus, Y.B., and Yurtsever, S., Food Chem., 2013, vol. 138, p. 770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    He, Y.-M., Zhao, F.-F., Zhou, Y., Ahmad, F., and Ling, Z.-X., Anal. Methods, 2015, vol. 7, p. 4493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    He, Y.-M., Chen, J.-J., Zhou, Y., Wang, X.-J., and Liu, X.-Y., Anal. Methods, 2014, vol. 6, p. 5105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caldas, L.F.S., Brum, D.M., De Paula, C.E.R., and Cassella, R.J., Talanta, 2013, vol. 110, p. 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robaina, N.F., Brum, D.M., and Cassella, R.J., Talanta, 2012, vol. 99, p. 104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seddon, A.M., Curnow, P., and Booth, P.J., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2004, vol. 1666, p. 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lorimer, J. and Mason, T., Sonochemistry: Theory, Applications and Uses of Ultrasound in Chemistry, Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 1988.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hardcastle, J.L., Ball, J.C., Hong, Q., Marken, F., Compton, R.G., Bull, S.D., and Davies, S.G., Ultrason. Sonochem., 2000, vol. 7, p. 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Santos, H.M., Lodeiro, C., and Capelo-Martínez, J.L., The Ower of Ultrasound, Weinheim: Wiley, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of Science, P.O. Box, 2455, King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations