Russian Journal of Electrochemistry

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 407–418 | Cite as

Preparation and Characterization of Graphite Substrate Manganese Dioxide Electrode for Indirect Electrochemical Removal of Phenol

  • R. H. Salman
  • M. H. Hafiz
  • A. S. AbbasEmail author


Manganese dioxide rotating cylinder electrode prepared by anodic deposition on a graphite substrate using MnSO4 solution in the presence of 0.918 M of H2SO4. The influence of different operational parameters (MnSO4 concentration, current density, time, and rotation speed) on the structure, and morphology of MnO2 deposit film was examined widely. The structure and crystal size determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The γ-MnO2 obtained as the main product of the deposition process. It found that the four parameters have a significant influence on the structure, morphology, and roughness of the prepared MnO2 deposit. The crystal size increases with MnSO4 concentration, current density, and rotation speed, and decreasing with time, while the roughness decreases with increasing all of four parameters. It found that the optimum conditions used in preparing MnO2 rotating electrode that gave the smallest crystal size, low roughness and less cracking were 0.33 M of MnSO4, 6 mA/cm2, 2 h, and 200 rpm. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol in a batch reactor was carried out in the presence of NaCl to examine the performance of the prepared MnO2 electrode for degrading phenol and any organic byproducts at different current densities. The results indicate that as the current density increased from 25 to 100 mA/cm2, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was increased from 59.26 to 99.90%. Kinetics and the effect of temperature on the COD disappearance have been studied. It was clear that COD decreases with time and as the temperature increases, and the value of reaction order equals to 1 as has been found.


manganese dioxide electrodeposition electrochemical oxidation phenol removal rotating cylinder electrode 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Department, College of EngineeringUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.Engineering CollegeIraqia UniversityBaghdadIraq

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