Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 66, Issue 4, pp 572–582 | Cite as

Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding NHX2 Antiporter and Subunit A of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Pump in Salt-Resistant and Salt-Sensitive Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars under Salt Stress

  • F. KargarEmail author
  • A. Niazi
  • M. Fakhrfeshani
  • K. Malekzadeh


Salinity is one of the most important factors causing limiting growth aspects. Salinity tolerance is a multigenic trait activating mechanisms such as high H+ pumping activity, like NHX2 that is a tonoplast localized Na+/H+ exchanger and actively transfers the excess sodium ions from the cytoplasm into the vacuole. Vacuolar (v-) H+-ATPase pump is also a tonoplast localized, providing the ATP energy required for tonoplast antiporters. Evaluation of the expression level of HvNHX2 and subunit A of v-H+-ATPase (VHA-A) genes using real-time RT-PCR, in root and shoot tissue of salt-sensitive Reihan and salt-tolerant Afzal barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars under different salinity concentrations indicated that increasing the concentrations or duration of NaCl stress would decrease the K+/Na ratio that is a signal for cascade responses to the stress but fluctuated expression level of studied genes in some time point. However, promoter analysis of studied genes showed that both have CAAT, TATA and W-box promoter motifs which involve pathogen, salt and ABA-responsive signaling pathways but differed in TC-rich repeats, A-box, TCA-element and GARE-motif that may be one of the reason of observed different.


Hordeum vulgare salinity NHX2 VHA-A real-time RT-PCR 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Central Laboratory of Biotechnology Institute, University of Shiraz and its personnel for their support and contribution to this study.


The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Kargar
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Niazi
    • 1
  • M. Fakhrfeshani
    • 2
  • K. Malekzadeh
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Plant Biotechnology, Jahrom UniversityJahromIran
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr UniversityRafsanjanIran

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